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Yuba weighs so much that he can extend himself over the table pretty far without falling off. If he did fall off, we’d have to patch a hole in the floor…
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Posted: April 29, 2018 at 12:41 am
Posted: April 28, 2018 at 5:40 am
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation. The presence of hCG is detected in some pregnancy tests (HCG pregnancy strip tests). Some cancerous tumors produce this hormone; therefore, elevated levels measured when the patient is not pregnant may lead to a cancer diagnosis and, if high enough, paraneoplastic syndromes, however, it is not known whether this production is a contributing cause, or an effect of carcinogenesis. The pituitary analog of hCG, known as luteinizing hormone (LH), is produced in the pituitary gland of males and females of all ages.
Regarding endogenous forms of hCG, there are various ways to categorize and measure them, including total hCG, C-terminal peptide total hCG, intact hCG, free -subunit hCG, -core fragment hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG, nicked hCG, alpha hCG, and pituitary hCG. Regarding pharmaceutical preparations of hCG from animal or synthetic sources, there are many gonadotropin preparations, some of which are medically justified and others of which are of a quack nature. As of December6, 2011[update], the United States Food and Drug Administration has prohibited the sale of “homeopathic” and over-the-counter hCG diet products and declared them fraudulent and illegal.
Human chorionic gonadotropin is glycoprotein composed of 237 amino acids with a molecular mass of 36.7 kDa, approximately 14.5 hCG and 22.2kDa hCG.
It is heterodimeric, with an (alpha) subunit identical to that of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and (beta) subunit that is unique to hCG.
The two subunits create a small hydrophobic core surrounded by a high surface area-to-volume ratio: 2.8 times that of a sphere. The vast majority of the outer amino acids are hydrophilic.
Human chorionic gonadotropin interacts with the LHCG receptor of the ovary and promotes the maintenance of the corpus luteum during the beginning of pregnancy. This allows the corpus luteum to secrete the hormone progesterone during the first trimester. Progesterone enriches the uterus with a thick lining of blood vessels and capillaries so that it can sustain the growing fetus.
Due to its highly negative charge, hCG may repel the immune cells of the mother, protecting the fetus during the first trimester. It has also been hypothesized that hCG may be a placental link for the development of local maternal immunotolerance. For example, hCG-treated endometrial cells induce an increase in T cell apoptosis (dissolution of T cells). These results suggest that hCG may be a link in the development of peritrophoblastic immune tolerance, and may facilitate the trophoblast invasion, which is known to expedite fetal development in the endometrium. It has also been suggested that hCG levels are linked to the severity of morning sickness or Hyperemesis gravidarum in pregnant women.
Because of its similarity to LH, hCG can also be used clinically to induce ovulation in the ovaries as well as testosterone production in the testes. As the most abundant biological source is women who are presently pregnant, some organizations collect urine from pregnant women to extract hCG for use in fertility treatment.
Human chorionic gonadotropin also plays a role in cellular differentiation/proliferation and may activate apoptosis.
Naturally, it is produced in the human placenta by the syncytiotrophoblast.
Like any other gonadotropins, it can be extracted from the urine of pregnant women or produced from cultures of genetically modified cells using recombinant DNA technology.
In Pubergen, Pregnyl, Follutein, Profasi, Choragon and Novarel, it is extracted from the urine of pregnant women. In Ovidrel, it is produced with recombinant DNA technology.
Regarding endogenous forms of hCG, there are various ways to categorize and measure them, including total hCG, C-terminal peptide total hCG, intact hCG, free -subunit hCG, -core fragment hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG, nicked hCG, alpha hCG, and pituitary hCG.
Regular hCG is the main form of hCG associated with the majority of pregnancy and in non-invasive molar pregnancies. This is produced in the trophoblast cells of the placental tissue. Hyperglycosylated hCG is the main form of hCG during the implantation phase of pregnancy, with invasive molar pregnancies, and with choriocarcinoma.
Regarding pharmaceutical preparations of hCG from animal or synthetic sources, there are many gonadotropin preparations, some of which are medically justified and others of which are of a quack nature.
Blood or urine tests measure hCG. These can be pregnancy tests. hCG-positive indicates an implanted blastocyst and mammalian embryogenesis. These can be done to diagnose and monitor germ cell tumors and gestational trophoblastic diseases.
Concentrations are commonly reported in thousandth international units per milliliter (mIU/ml). The international unit of hCG was originally established in 1938 and has been redefined in 1964 and in 1980. At the present time, 1 international unit is equal to approximately 2.351012 moles, or about 6108 grams.
Most tests employ a monoclonal antibody, which is specific to the -subunit of hCG (-hCG). This procedure is employed to ensure that tests do not make false positives by confusing hCG with LH and FSH. (The latter two are always present at varying levels in the body, whereas the presence of hCG almost always indicates pregnancy.)
Many hCG immunoassays are based on the sandwich principle, which uses antibodies to hCG labeled with an enzyme or a conventional or luminescent dye. Pregnancy urine dipstick tests are based on the lateral flow technique.
The following is a list of serum hCG levels. (LMP is the last menstrual period dated from the first day of the last menstrual period.) The levels grow exponentially after conception and implantation.
The ability to quantitate the hCG level is useful in the monitoring germ cell and trophoblastic tumors, follow-up care after miscarriage, and in diagnosis of and follow-up care after treatment of ectopic pregnancy. The lack of a visible fetus on vaginal ultrasound after the hCG levels have reached 1500 mIU/ml is strongly indicative of an ectopic pregnancy. Still, even an hCG over 2000 IU/l does not necessarily exclude the presence of a viable intrauterine pregnancy in such cases.
As pregnancy tests, quantitative blood tests and the most sensitive urine tests usually detect hCG between 6 and 12 days after ovulation. It must be taken into account, however, that total hCG levels may vary in a very wide range within the first 4 weeks of gestation, leading to false results during this period. A rise of 35% over 48 hours is proposed as the minimal rise consistent with a viable intrauterine pregnancy.
Gestational trophoblastic disease like hydatidiform moles (“molar pregnancy”) or choriocarcinoma may produce high levels of hCG (due to the presence of syncytialtrophoblasts- part of the villi that make up the placenta) despite the absence of an embryo. This, as well as several other conditions, can lead to elevated hCG readings in the absence of pregnancy.
hCG levels are also a component of the triple test, a screening test for certain fetal chromosomal abnormalities/birth defects.
A study of 32 normal pregnancies came to the result a gestational sac of 13mm was detected at a mean hCG level of 1150 IU/l (range 800-1500), a yolk sac was detected at a mean level of 6000 IU/l (range 4500-7500) and fetal heartbeat was visible at a mean hCG level of 10,000 IU/l (range 8650-12,200).
Human chorionic gonadotropin can be used as a tumor marker, as its subunit is secreted by some cancers including seminoma, choriocarcinoma, germ cell tumors, hydatidiform mole, teratoma with elements of choriocarcinoma, and islet cell tumor. For this reason, a positive result in males can be a test for testicular cancer. The normal range for men is between 0-5 mIU/mL. Combined with alpha-fetoprotein, -HCG is an excellent tumor marker for the monitoring of germ cell tumors.
Human chorionic gonadotropin injection is extensively used for final maturation induction in lieu of luteinizing hormone. In the presence of one or more mature ovarian follicles, ovulation can be triggered by the administration of HCG. As ovulation will happen between 38 and 40 hours after a single HCG injection, procedures can be scheduled to take advantage of this time sequence, such as intrauterine insemination or sexual intercourse. Also, patients that undergo IVF, in general, receive HCG to trigger the ovulation process, but have an oocyte retrieval performed at about 34 to 36 hours after injection by, a few hours before the eggs actually would be released from the ovary.
As HCG supports the corpus luteum, administration of HCG is used in certain circumstances to enhance the production of progesterone.
In the male, HCG injections are used to stimulate the Leydig cells to synthesize testosterone. The intratesticular testosterone is necessary for spermatogenesis from the sertoli cells. Typical uses for HCG in men include hypogonadism and fertility treatment.
Several vaccines against human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for the prevention of pregnancy are currently in clinical trials.
In the case of female patients who want to be treated with HCG Pubergen, Pregnyl: a) Since infertile female patients who undergo medically assisted reproduction (especially those who need in vitro fertilization), are known to often be suffering from tubal abnormalities, after a treatment with this drug they might experience many more ectopic pregnancies. This is why early ultrasound confirmation at the beginning of a pregnancy (to see whether the pregnancy is intrauterine or not) is crucial. Pregnancies that have occurred after a treatment with this medicine are submitted to a higher risk of multiplets. Female patients who have thrombosis, severe obesity, or thrombophilia should not be prescribed this medicine as they have a higher risk of arterial or venous thromboembolic events after or during a treatment with HCG Pubergen, Pregnyl. b)Female patients who have been treated with this medicine are usually more prone to pregnancy losses.
In the case of male patients: A prolonged treatment with HCG Pubergen, Pregnyl is known to regularly lead to increased production of androgen. Therefore: Patients who are suffering from overt or latent cardiac failure, hypertension, renal dysfunction, migraines, or epilepsy might not be allowed to start using this medicine or may require a lower dose of HCG Pubergen, Pregnyl. Also this medicine should be used with extreme caution in the treatment of prepubescent teenagers in order to reduce the risk of precocious sexual development or premature epiphyseal closure. This type of patients’ skeletal maturation should be closely and regularly monitored.
Both male and female patients who have the following medical conditions must not start a treatment with HCG Pubergen, Pregnyl: (1) Hypersensitivity to this medicine or to any of its main ingredients. (2) Known or possible androgen-dependent tumors for example male breast carcinoma or prostatic carcinoma.
In the world of performance-enhancing drugs, HCG is increasingly used in combination with various anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) cycles. As a result, HCG is included in some sports’ illegal drug lists.
When exogenous AAS are put into the male body, natural negative-feedback loops cause the body to shut down its own production of testosterone via shutdown of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA). This causes testicular atrophy, among other things. HCG is commonly used during and after steroid cycles to maintain and restore testicular size as well as normal testosterone production.
High levels of AASs, that mimic the body’s natural testosterone, trigger the hypothalamus to shut down its production of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. Without GnRH, the pituitary gland stops releasing luteinizing hormone (LH). LH normally travels from the pituitary via the blood stream to the testes, where it triggers the production and release of testosterone. Without LH, the testes shut down their production of testosterone. In males, HCG helps restore and maintain testosterone production in the testes by mimicking LH and triggering the production and release of testosterone.
If HCG is used for too long and in too high a dose, the resulting rise in natural testosterone and estrogen would eventually inhibit endogenous production of luteinizing hormone via negative feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
Professional athletes who have tested positive for HCG have been temporarily banned from their sport, including a 50-game ban from MLB for Manny Ramirez in 2009 and a 4-game ban from the NFL for Brian Cushing for a positive urine test for HCG. Mixed Martial Arts fighter Dennis Siver was fined $19,800 and suspended 9 months for being tested positive after his bout at UFC 168.
British endocrinologist Albert T. W. Simeons proposed HCG as an adjunct to an ultra-low-calorie weight-loss diet (fewer than 500 calories). Simeons, while studying pregnant women in India on a calorie-deficient diet, and “fat boys” with pituitary problems (Frlich’s syndrome) treated with low-dose HCG, observed that both lost fat rather than lean (muscle) tissue. He reasoned that HCG must be programming the hypothalamus to do this in the former cases in order to protect the developing fetus by promoting mobilization and consumption of abnormal, excessive adipose deposits. Simeons in 1954 published a book entitled Pounds and Inches, designed to combat obesity. Simeons, practicing at Salvator Mundi International Hospital in Rome, Italy, recommended low-dose daily HCG injections (125IU) in combination with a customized ultra-low-calorie (500 cal/day, high-protein, low-carbohydrate/fat) diet, which was supposed to result in a loss of adipose tissue without loss of lean tissue.
Other researchers did not find the same results when attempting experiments to confirm Simeons’ conclusions, and in 1976 in response to complaints the FDA required Simeons and others to include the following disclaimer on all advertisements:
These weight reduction treatments include the injection of HCG, a drug which has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as safe and effective in the treatment of obesity or weight control. There is no substantial evidence that HCG increases weight loss beyond that resulting from caloric restriction, that it causes a more attractive or “normal” distribution of fat, or that it decreases the hunger and discomfort associated with calorie-restrictive diets.
1976 FDA-mandated disclaimer for HCG diet advertisements
There was a resurgence of interest in the “HCG diet” following promotion by Kevin Trudeau, who was banned from making HCG diet weight-loss claims by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission in 2008, and eventually jailed over such claims.
A 1976 study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition concluded that HCG is not more effective as a weight-loss aid than dietary restriction alone.
A 1995 meta analysis found that studies supporting HCG for weight loss were of poor methodological quality and concluded that “there is no scientific evidence that HCG is effective in the treatment of obesity; it does not bring about weight-loss or fat-redistribution, nor does it reduce hunger or induce a feeling of well-being”.
On November 15, 2016, the American Medical Association (AMA) passed policy that “The use of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) for weight loss is inappropriate.”
There is no scientific evidence that HCG is effective in the treatment of obesity. The meta-analysis found insufficient evidence supporting the claims that HCG is effective in altering fat-distribution, hunger reduction, or in inducing a feeling of well-being. The authors stated the use of HCG should be regarded as an inappropriate therapy for weight reduction In the authors opinion, Pharmacists and physicians should be alert on the use of HCG for Simeons therapy. The results of this meta-analysis support a firm standpoint against this improper indication. Restraints on physicians practicing this therapy can be based on our findings.
According to the American Society of Bariatric Physicians, no new clinical trials have been published since the definitive 1995 meta-analysis.
The scientific consensus is that any weight loss reported by individuals on an “HCG diet” may be attributed entirely to the fact that such diets prescribe calorie intake of between 500 and 1,000 calories per day, substantially below recommended levels for an adult, to the point that this may risk health effects associated with malnutrition.
Controversy about, and shortages of, injected HCG for weight loss have led to substantial Internet promotion of “homeopathic HCG” for weight control. The ingredients in these products are often obscure, but if prepared from true HCG via homeopathic dilution, they contain either no HCG at all or only trace amounts. Moreover, it is highly unlikely that oral HCG is bioavailable due to the fact that digestive protease enzymes and hepatic metabolism renders peptide-based molecules (such as insulin and human growth hormone) biologically inert. HCG can likely only enter the bloodstream through injection.
The United States Food and Drug Administration has stated that over-the-counter products containing HCG are fraudulent and ineffective for weight loss. They are also not protected as homeopathic drugs and have been deemed illegal substances. HCG is classified as a prescription drug in the United States and it has not been approved for over-the-counter sales by the FDA as a weight loss product or for any other purposes, and therefore neither HCG in its pure form nor any preparations containing HCG may be sold legally in the country except by prescription. In December 2011, FDA and FTC started to take actions to pull unapproved HCG products from the market. In the aftermath, some suppliers started to switch to “hormone-free” versions of their weight loss products, where the hormone is replaced with an unproven mixture of free amino acids or where radionics is used to transfer the “energy” to the final product.
In order to induce a stronger immune response, some versions of human chorionic gonadotropin-based anti-fertility vaccines were designed as conjugates of the subunit of HCG covalently linked to tetanus toxoid. It has been alleged that a non-conjugated tetanus vaccine used in developing countries is laced with a human chorionic gonadotropin based anti-fertility drug and is distributed as a means of mass sterilization. This charge has been vigorously denied by the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF. Others have argued that a hCG laced vaccine could not be used for sterilization since the effects of the anti-fertility vaccines are reversible (requiring booster doses to maintain immunity) and a non-conjugated vaccine is likely to be ineffective. Finally, independent testing of the tetanus vaccine by Kenyas health authorities has revealed no traces of the human chorionic gonadotropin hormone.
1hcn: STRUCTURE OF HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN AT 2.6 ANGSTROMS RESOLUTION FROM MAD ANALYSIS OF THE SELENOMETHIONYL PROTEIN
1hrp: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN
1qfw: TERNARY COMPLEX OF HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN WITH FV ANTI ALPHA SUBUNIT AND FV ANTI BETA SUBUNIT
Human chorionic gonadotropin – Wikipedia
Posted: April 28, 2018 at 5:40 am
HCG, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, is a naturally occurring human hormone that is produced by pregnant females. The hormone originates from the placenta, which is an organ that develops during pregnancy that nourishes the growing baby, providing it with oxygen, nutrients, and other things necessary for healthy growth. The benefits of HCG injections for women are excellent for those looking to lose weight in a healthy, effective way.
As we mentioned earlier, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin is a human hormone that a placenta produces during pregnancy to nourish the mother and child. You may have heard of the many healthful effects of a placenta, and it has become more common for individuals to consume a placenta after birth. It is believed to have a positive, healthy, nourishing effect on the mother that helps her avoid Post-Partum Depression and gives her body a boost. In fact, almost all other mammals consume their placenta after birth, because biology has programmed them to do so. Nature understands the positive effects this act can have for the growth and development, not to mention survival, of a mother, which, in turn, helps her infant as well.
So, what does this have to do with females who are not pregnant? As it turns out, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin is just one of the many beneficial substances produced by the placenta. Scientists have discovered that the hormone has positive effects for those who want to improve their muscle mass or lose weight. The benefits of HCG injections for women cannot be overstated.
The benefits of HCG injections for women are unique to female body chemistry. Yes, men can also take shots of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, but for females in particular, it has a potent efficacy. Many ladies struggle with stubborn, clinging fat in unwanted areas like the thighs, buttocks, hips, and lower belly. Nature and biology naturally allow fat to accumulate in these areas so as to better prepare a woman for birth and childrearing. However, in our modern day and age, we have less of a need for survival like our modern ancestors did. Natural selection has not quite filtered out the fat accumulation trait, so female bodies still hold onto excess weight as a survival tactic.
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin helps with stubborn weight loss. More often than not, a woman struggles to lose weight in her thighs and buttocks. One of the biggest benefits of HCG injections for women is that it easily allows you to drop pounds. This hormone is miraculous for a number of reasons. First of all, it prevents the feelings of hunger, emptiness, and cravings that cause so many individuals to eat foods that lead to fat and cause them to overeat.
For those who wish to lose weight, saying goodbye to those stubborn pounds can be harder than imagined. For every pound of fat you want to lose, your body needs to be less 3500 calories. While the average adult human needs around 2000 calories a day to maintain a healthy weight, those on diets reduce their caloric intake. This leads to a loss of fat, but in those that take the caloric restriction too far, it can lead to loss of muscle as well. This is considered muscle wasting, and happens when one does not consume a sufficient amount of calories or proteins to reasonably sustain their muscle mass.
Essentially, the individuals body ends up looking emaciated and malnourished. However, one of the benefits of HCG injections for women is that the bodys muscle mass does not atrophy with the deficit of calories. Instead, the Human Chorionic Gonadotropin hormone prevents the bodys metabolism from slowing down or crashing entirely.
The Human Chorionic Gonadotropin diet requires a very low-calorie consumption. Generally, patients consume a high-protein, low carbohydrate, 500-800-calories-per-day diet in conjunction with the shots. Normally, consuming such a low amount of calories would lead to a large number of unwanted side effects such as hunger, a slowed metabolism, headaches, nausea, fainting, and more. However, the hormone shots prevent these side effects from occurring, allowing the low-calorie diet to help you lose weight. The benefits of HCG injections for women prevent the negative side effects from occurring while on the diet. Often, this diet looks like:
Fats should be avoided until you are in phase two of the diet. While in phase one, you should also avoid all fats, butter, oils, and sugars. The diet may seem limited, but it has been carefully crafted and put together in order to help your body easily lose weight in the most effective and healthy manner possible.
Together, the shots and diet lead to effective weight loss that helps individuals lose anywhere from one-half pound to two pounds a day. Most doctors and experts will tell you not to lose more than one pound per week, but that is because they are concerned about the negative side effects, which are avoided thanks to the hormone. So, in this case, the concerns are not applicable. The benefits of HCG injections for women mean you will not have to worry about negative side effects like you would with other diets.
Many people wonder what format is required to receive the full benefits of HCG injections for women. There are many options available, including liquids, gels, pills, sprays, and more. However, if one wants to benefit fully from the hormone, shots are the most effective method. With other methods, the hormone has a chance of dissolving or losing efficacy before reaching the bloodstream. If this happens, you will be wasting your time and efforts, because Human Chorionic Gonadotropin must enter the bloodstream to have the intended positive effects.
It is important to note that the benefits of HCG injections for women generally outweigh any potential side effects that may occur while on the regimen. Thanks to the hormones nurturing and stabilizing properties, you will not suffer from the typical diet side effects such as:
Since the benefits of HCG injections for women also extend to muscle mass and toning, the hormone helps prevent muscle wasting and atrophy. Too often, extremely low-calorie diets lead to lowered metabolisms, caused by the body fearing that starvation is imminent. When this happens, it instead clings to fat and hoards it, afraid that it will need to use the stores to survive. However, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin prevents this from kicking in and allows the fat to flush from your body without unwanted side effects. This means you can still tone and have a healthy looking body muscle mass while still consuming fewer calories and not feeling starved.
In reality, there are very few unwanted side effects of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin shots. Due to the nature of the application, some individuals may experience some initial swelling or redness at the site of the injection, but this will likely subside quickly. Once you begin the routine and your body gets used to the shots, the redness should dissipate, and you should start to see the benefits of HCG injections for women.
If you are someone who is not sure about using a syringe and injecting yourself every day, you are not alone. Plenty of people have been hesitant about this procedure, but when you think about it, it is no different from a person with diabetes injecting him or herself with insulin every day or someone using an epi-pen. Once you get the hang of it, you will not even have to think twice about it. In the end, the benefits of HCG injections for women are more than worth it to lose the stubborn, clinging fat that just will not go away.
To help you prepare and to receive the benefits of HCG injections for women, we make sure that you have all of the information and supplies that you will need. Each kit comes standard with:
These materials will prepare you with everything you may need for the shots and to reap the benefits of HCG injections for women.
On any diet, you should be sure to seek out the supervision of a trusted medical professional. Because Human Chorionic Gonadotropin shots are only available on a prescription basis, you will need to establish care with a practitioner. Once you have the prescription, you can fulfill it through US HCG Shots, getting you the best deal. If you come across options that are homeopathic or over-the-counter, you should avoid them. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin is only effective when it is prescription strength, and other products and formulas that are not prescription may be of a much lower quality. To get the most effective product and to get the benefits of HCG injections for women, trust US HCG Shots.
As a female seeking the benefits of HCG injections for women, you should be aware that, because HCG is the primary hormone used by pregnancy tests to detect pregnancy, your regimen of shots could lead to a false positive on a pregnancy test. If you are or may become pregnant, you should not take Human Chorionic Gonadotropin shots. While the hormone is naturally present in pregnant females, taking extra hormones can cause an increase that goes beyond what is optimal for weight loss. Lactating and breastfeeding mothers should also not take these shots as they can be transferred through breastmilk, and the amount may be harmful to the infant.
When it comes to losing weight, we understand how difficult it can be. For too long, people have resorted to drastic measures in hopes of losing a few pounds and reaching a healthy body weight. Paired with a very low-calorie diet, the benefits of HCG injections for women are far-reaching for those who want to lose weight. With the hormone, you can lose anywhere from 0.5 to 1 pound per day in a healthy, natural way. Even though the weight loss will be rapid, the hormones properties will prevent the body from wasting or sagging, as you may have seen with other dramatic weight loss procedures.
A diet based on the reduced calories combined with the consumption of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin is not a new concept. The Human Chorionic Gonadotropin diet was pioneered by Dr. Albert T. W. Simeons, a British endocrinologist, in the 1950s. Dr. Simeons spent a great deal of time studying obesity patients and published a book titled Pounds and Inches. This book outlines a plan for losing weight quickly on a VLCD (Very Low Calorie Diet). Other doctors have reviewed his work and also support his findings. Largely, this is due to further research on the hormone and the benefits of HCG injections for women.
Hormones play a large role in how womens weight is distributed. This is especially true for fat distribution. Hormones also have the ability to alter the fat stored in the body dramatically. This is why Human Chorionic Gonadotropin is so powerful for losing weight, thanks to the benefits of HCG injections for women. The hormone prevents the bodys metabolism from crashing and continues long after the hormone shot therapy has ended. By altering the messages that the brain receives with the help of the hormone, your body will stabilize. This means that the loss of fat will continue, even though the muscle tone will remain.
Losing weight can be hard. Hundreds, thousands, and millions of people struggle with their weight on a daily basis, and obesity has become a rampant problem in the modern world. Excess weight is one of the leading causes of other health issues, such as:
To participate in the benefits of HCG injections for women, call US HCG Shots today at 1-855-862-9510 Monday Friday from 9:00 am 5:00 pm EST.
Posted: April 28, 2018 at 5:40 am
Posted: April 28, 2018 at 5:40 am
Posted: April 23, 2018 at 10:42 am
bernawy hugues kossi huo posted a photo:
Eating an abundance of junk seems normal to today’s generation. Over the past few years, in urban metropolitan cities, the tradition of eating home cooked Indian food is swapped by quick fix snacks, chips and biscuits etc. Easy availability and low cost are a major cause for the growing fad for junk food among kids. Junk food is a classic example of unbalanced diet usually characterized by high proportion of carbohydrates, refined sugar, salt, fats and low nutritional value, which can raise various health concerns like obesity, cardiac disease, diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure etc. These food are processed and refined in such a way that they lose most of the key nutrients, have low fiber and poor water content. Effects of junk food on our digestive system: Junk food is unhealthy for digestive system as they slowdown the digestion process making the stomach bloated. In order to digest food, stomach needs enzymes and fast food does not have them. When food is absorbed by the intestine it requires fiber and water to excrete but they don’t have such nutrients which leads to poor digestion and irritable bowels. Carbs and sugar in fast food and processed food can increase acids in your mouth. These acids can break down tooth enamel. As tooth enamel disappears, bacteria can take hold, and cavities may develop.
Obesity can also lead to complications with bone density and muscle mass. People who are obese have a greater risk for falling and breaking bones. It’s important to keep exercising to build muscles, which support your bones, and maintain a healthy diet to minimize bone loss.Fast food may satisfy hunger in the short term, but long-term results are less positive. People who eat fast food and processed pastries are 51 percent more likely to develop depression than people who don’t eat those foods or eat very few of them.Excess calories from fast-food meals can cause weight gain. This may lead toward obesity.Obesity increases your risk for respiratory problems, including asthma and shortness of breath. The extra pounds can put pressure on your heart and lungs and symptoms may show up even with little exertion. You may notice difficulty breathing when you’re walking, climbing stairs, or exercising. For children, the risk of respiratory problems is especially clear. One study found that children who eat fast food at least three times a week are more likely to develop asthma.Most fast food, including drinks and sides, are loaded with carbohydrates with little to no fiber. When your digestive system breaks down these foods, the carbs are released as glucose (sugar) into your bloodstream. As a result, your blood sugar increases. Your pancreas responds to the surge in glucose by releasing insulin. Insulin transports sugar throughout your body to cells that need it for energy. As your body uses or stores the sugar, your blood sugar returns to normal.How many carbs should you eat in a day? » This blood sugar process is highly regulated by your body, and as long as you’re healthy, your organs can properly handle these sugar spikes. But frequently eating high amounts of carbs can lead to repeated spikes in your blood sugar. Overtime, these insulin spikes may cause your body’s normal insulin response to falter. This increases your risk for weight gain, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Swinging through the drive-thru or hopping into your favorite fast-food restaurant tends to happen more often than some would like to admit. According to the Food Institute’s analysis of data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, millennials alone spend 44 percent of their budget’s food dollars on eating out.
Junk food is a pejorative term for food containing high levels of calories from sugar or fat with little fibre, protein, vitamins or minerals. Junk food can also refer to high protein food like meat prepared with saturated fat. Food from many hamburger outlets, pizza and fried chicken outlets is often considered as junk food.
Concerns about the negative health effects resulting from a “junk food”-heavy diet, especially obesity, have resulted in public health awareness campaigns, and restrictions on advertising and sale in several countries.
1Origin of the term
3Popularity and appeal
5Anti-junk food measures
Origin of the term
The term junk food dates back at least to the early 1950s,although it has been reported that it was coined in 1972 by Michael F. Jacobson of the Center for Science in the Public Interest.In 1952, it appeared in a headline in the Lima, Ohio, News, “fish, ‘Junk Foods’ Cause Serious Malnutrition”, for a reprint of a 1948 article from the Ogden, Utah, Standard-Examiner, originally headlined, “Dr. Brady’s Health Column: More Junk Than Food”. In it, Dr. Brady writes, “What Mrs. H calls ‘junk’ I call cheat food. That is anything made principally of white flour and or refined white sugar or syrup. For example, white bread, crackers, cake, candy, ice cream soda, chocolate malted, sundaes, sweetened carbonated beverages.”The term cheat food can be traced back in newspaper mentions to at least 1916.
Andrew F. Smith, in his book, Encyclopedia of Junk Food and Fast Food, defines junk food as “those commercial products, including candy, bakery goods, ice cream, salty snacks, and soft drinks, which have little or no nutritional value but do have plenty of calories, salt, and fats. While not all fast foods are junk foods, most are. Fast foods are ready-to-eat foods served promptly after ordering. Some fast foods are high in calories and low in nutritional value, while other fast foods, such as salads, may be low in calories and high in nutritional value.”
Junk foods have empty calories, i.e. the energy content is not complemented with proteins and lipids required for a nutritious diet. François Magendie showed by experiment in 1816 that dogs died when fed only sugar.
Foods commonly considered junk foods include salted snack foods, gum, candy, sweet desserts, fried fast food, and sugary carbonated beverages. Many foods such as hamburgers, pizza, and tacos can be considered either healthy or junk food depending on their ingredients and preparation methods. The more highly processed items usually fall under the junk food category, including breakfast cereals that are mostly sugar or high fructose corn syrup and white flour or milled corn.
Especially in the case of ethnic foods, a classification as “junk food” could be perceived as rather offensive, given that such foods may have been prepared and consumed for centuries and may contain healthy ingredients. In the book, Panic Nation: Unpicking the Myths We’re Told About Food and Health, a complementary point is argued: food is food, and if there is no nutritional value, then it isn’t a food of any type, “junk” or otherwise. Co-editor Vincent Marks explains, “To label a food as ‘junk’ is just another way of saying, ‘I disapprove of it.’ There are bad diets – that is, bad mixtures and quantities of food – but there are no ‘bad foods’ except those that have become bad through contamination or deterioration.”
Popularity and appeal
Junk food in its various forms is extremely popular, and an integral part of modern popular culture. In the US, annual fast food sales are in the area of $160 billion, compared to supermarket sales of $620 billion (a figure which also includes junk food in the form of convenience foods, snack foods, and candy). In 1976, “Junk Food Junkie”, the tale of a junk food addict who pretends to follow a healthy diet by day, while at night he clandestinely gorges on Hostess Twinkies and Fritos corn chips, McDonald’s and KFC, became a Top 10 pop hit in the US. Thirty-six years later, Time placed the Twinkie at #1 in its “Top 10 Iconic Junk Foods” special feature: “Not only…a mainstay on our supermarket shelves and in our bellies, they’ve been a staple in our popular culture and, above all, in our hearts. Often criticized for its lack of any nutritional value whatsoever, the Twinkie has managed to persevere as a cultural and gastronomical icon.”
America also celebrates an annual National Junk Food Day on July 21. Origins are unclear; it is one of around 175 US food and drink days, most created by “people who want to sell more food”, at times aided by elected officials at the request of a trade association or commodity group. “In honor of the day,” Time in 2014 published, “5 Crazy Junk Food Combinations”. Headlines from other national and local media coverage include: “Celebrate National Junk Food Day With… Beer-Flavored Oreos?” (MTV); “National Junk Food Day: Pick your favorite unhealthy treats in this poll” (Baltimore);”Celebrities’ favorite junk food” (Los Angeles); “A Nutritionist’s Guide to National Junk Food Day” with “Rules for Splurging” (Huffington Post); and “It’s National Junk Food Day: Got snacks?” (Kansas City).
It is well-established that the poor eat more junk food overall than the more affluent, but the reasons for this are not clear. Few studies have focused on variations in food perception according to socio-economic status (SES); some studies that have differentiated based on SES suggest that the economically challenged don’t perceive healthy food much differently than any other segment of the population.Recent research into scarcity, combining behavioral science and economics, suggests that, faced with extreme economic uncertainty, where even the next meal may not be a sure thing, judgment is impaired and the drive is to the instant gratification of junk food, rather than to making the necessary investment in the longer-term benefits of a healthier diet.
When junk food is consumed very often, the excess fat, simple carbohydrates, and processed sugar found in junk food contributes to an increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and many other chronic health conditions. A case study on consumption of fast foods in Ghana suggested a direct correlation between consumption of junk food and obesity rates. The report asserts that obesity resulted to related complex health concerns such upsurge of heart attack rates. Studies reveal that as early as the age of 30, arteries could begin clogging and lay the groundwork for future heart attacks.Consumers also tend to eat too much in one sitting, and those who have satisfied their appetite with junk food are less likely to eat healthy foods like fruit or vegetables.
Testing on rats has indicated negative effects of junk food that may manifest likewise in people. A Scripps Research Institute study in 2008 suggested that junk food consumption alters brain activity in a manner similar to addictive drugs like cocaine and heroin. After many weeks with unlimited access to junk food, the pleasure centers of rat brains became desensitized, requiring more food for pleasure; after the junk food was taken away and replaced with a healthy diet, the rats starved for two weeks instead of eating nutritious fare. A 2007 study in the British Journal of Nutrition found that female rats who eat junk food during pregnancy increased the likelihood of unhealthy eating habits in their offspring.
Other research has been done on the impact of sugary foods on emotional health in humans, and has suggested that consumption of junk food can negatively impact energy levels and emotional well-being.
Anti-junk food measures
A number of countries have adopted, or are considering, various forms of legislated action to curb junk food consumption. In 2014, United Nations Special Rapporteur on the right to health, Anand Grover, released his report, “Unhealthy foods, non-communicable diseases and the right to health”, and called for governments to “take measures, such as developing food and nutrition guidelines for healthy diets, regulating marketing and advertising of junk food, adopting consumer-friendly labelling of food products, and establishing accountability mechanisms for violations of the right to health.”
An early, high-profile and controversial attempt to identify and curb junk food in the American diet was launched by the so-called McGovern Committee, formally, the United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, between 1968 and 1977, chaired by Senator George McGovern. Initially formed to investigate malnutrition and hunger in the US, the committee’s scope progressively expanded to include environmental conditions that affected eating habits, like urban decay, then focused on the diet and nutritional habits of the American public. It criticized the use of salt, sugar and fat in processed foods, noted problems with overeating and the high percentage of ads for junk food on TV, and stated that bad eating habits could be as deadly as smoking. The findings were heavily criticized and rebutted from many directions, including the food industry, the American Medical Association, and within the committee itself. In 1977, the committee issued public guidelines under the title, Dietary Goals for the United States, which became the predecessor to Dietary Guidelines for Americans, published every five years beginning in 1980 by the US Department of Health and Human Services.
In an attempt to reduce junk food consumption through price control, forms of Pigovian taxation have been implemented. Targeting saturated fat consumption, Denmark introduced the world’s first fat-food tax in October, 2011, by imposing a surcharge on all foods, including those made from natural ingredients, that contain more than 2.3 percent saturated fat, an unpopular measure that lasted a little over a year. Hungary has also imposed a tax on packaged foods that contain unhealthy concentrations, such as beverages containing more than 20 mg of caffeine per 100 ml.Norway taxes refined sugar, and Mexico has various excises on unhealthy food. On April 1, 2015, the first fat tax in the US, the Navajo Nation’s Healthy Diné Nation Act of 2014, mandating a 2% junk food tax, came into effect, covering the 27,000 sq. mi. of Navajo reservation; the Act targeted problems with obesity and diabetes among the Navajo population.
Junk food that is targeted at children is a contentious issue. In “The Impact of Advertising on Childhood obesity”, the American Psychological Association reports: “Research has found strong associations between increases in advertising for non-nutritious foods and rates of childhood obesity.” In the UK, efforts to increasingly limit or eliminate advertising of foods high in sugar, salt or fat at any time when children may be viewing are ongoing.The UK government has been criticized for failing to do enough to stop advertising and promotion of junk food aimed at children.
Controversy over junk food promotions during Australian cricket matches was reported in the news media in early 2015. A Wollongong University study showed that junk food sponsors were mentioned over 1,000 times in a single match broadcast, which included ads and branding worn on players’ uniforms and on the scoreboard and pitch. A coalition of Australian obesity, cancer and diabetes organizations called on Cricket Australia, the sport’s governing body, to “phase out sponsorships with unhealthy brands”, emphasizing that cricket is a “healthy, family-oriented sport” with children in the audience. Many countries have restricted advertising of junk food.
In a study by the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, the frequency of consumption of 57 foods/drinks of 4000 children at the age of four and a half were collected by maternal report. At age seven the 4000 children were given the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The test was divided into 5 sections: hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer problems, emotional symptoms and pro-social behavior. A one standard deviation increase in junk food was then linked to excessive hyperactivity in 33% of the 4000 children. In conclusion, children with excess junk food at the age of seven are more likely to be in the top third of the hyperactivity sub-scale; however, there is not enough correlation between junk food and the other sub-scales such as emotional symptoms and peer problems.
Posted: April 20, 2018 at 5:41 pm
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, HCG for short,is a hormone that is naturally produced by the placenta during a normal pregnancy. During pregnancy it triggers the hypothalamus which mobilizes the mother’s stored fat. This is essential because it helps insure that the baby gets the fuel it needs in order to be healthy.
HCG has also been used as a fertility drug with no side effects. HCG is highly effective in helping female patients become pregnant. This drug can also help males patients that are suffering from fertility issues (a treatment with this medicine usually enables such cases to produce a higher amount of testosterone).
HCG is a popular medicine that is regularly prescribed to male & female patients as part of a regimen that is supposed to induce fat loss.
A recent study has also shown that HCG can help prevent breast cancer. Does HCG prevent breast cancer?
These results are from using real HCG, not the homeopathic brands sold on the internet.
It cannot be sufficiently emphasized that HCG is not a sex-hormone, that its action is identical in men, women, children and in those cases in which the sex-glands no longer function owing to old age or their surgical removal.
HCG is a natural hormone and safe for men and women with correct dosages. HCG is currently being used in weight loss clinics because it works and it is safe. HCG is prescribed to help fertility issues in men and women, fertility dosages are as high as 6000 IU and higher per single dose. During pregnancy a women’s body contains HCG in amounts as high as 300,000 IU on a daily basis. The dosages for weight loss is very small compared to dosages given for fertility reasons. The diet dose is only 250 IU per day.
Things you can do to ensure that you lose one pound a day or more. Complete the Cleanse21 detoxification program before you start using HCG. Drink more than 2 liters of water per day. Use the B-12/Lipotropic injections to boost your energy and metabolism. Do not eat genetically modified foods or foods with high fructose corn syrups. Avoid artificial sweeteners. Avoid Fast Food Restaurants.
Don’t use HCG during a menstrual cycle, the best time to start treatment is immediately after a period. On the first day of full flow, you must stop the injections. You will continue the 900 cal/day diet. When your period is almost over and you are just spotting, you may restart the injections. The injections that you missed during this time will be added to the end of the program so that you get the full 20 or 40.
People who want to lose 15 pounds or less will need 20 days of HCG treatment followed by 3 extra days of the low calorie meal plan. People who need to lose more than 15 pounds will need 40 HCG treatments followed by 3 extra days of the low calorie meal plan. If you still need to lose more weight, you need to wait 4 weeks and control your foods before starting a new HCG cycle. People become temporarily immune to the effects of HCG after 40 days of HCG treatment, skipping an injection once or twice a week helps prolong the HCG immunity factor. Skip the same day(s) each week!
It is recommended that you continue the 700 900 calorie meal plan for 1 week. Your body needs to grow accustom to its new weight. Our Rapid Weight Loss diet works well for this period. After 1 week you can very gradually add starchy foods in small quantities.
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HCG Diet – Rapid Weight Loss Centers
Posted: April 20, 2018 at 4:45 am
If you are tired of doing exercises, yoga, following trick low-carb diets, home remedies, medical advices and so on but losing no pound. So, try anything to lose your extra weight. This article will reveal 46weird ways to lose weight fast in a week without exercise. Lets check out these strange tips, tricks andweird ways to lose weight below!
Just about all cultures have some customs that would be able to aid people in losing weight. For instance, if you go out for dinner in Europe, a waiter would generally set one bottle of mineral water on your table. However, at any restaurant like that in Canada, you usually need to request water and, of course, you might end up with pop or another drink that might has very high levels of caloriesinstead. Or else, you might get one more glass of beer or wine than you would if you have an alternating drink with water.
This is the first out of the list containing the best tips and weird ways to lose weight fast and naturally for women and men that I would like to introduce in this entire article.
For someone who takes medicine for controlling allergies, weight gain may be as common a complaint as itchy eyes or a runny nose. Joseph Ratliff, a postdoctoral associate in Yale School of Medicine psychiatry department, has discovered that people who are making use of antihistamines are 10 pounds heavier on average than the counterparts who are un-medicated. This can be due to the H1-type antihistamines (like Claritin or Allegra) block the histamines of the immune system, which play an important role in fat and appetite breakdown. Allergy corticosteroids or shots are possible alternatives, but those whose signs are controlled best by antihistamines might need to adjust their exercise or diet plan to compensate.
Research suggests that the regular use of sugar substitutes might give you the feeling of saintly, but it is actually hell on your waistline. Mice fed sugar alternatives; for example zero-calorie saccharin, eventually got higher levels of weight than others who were fed with sugar. Scientists guessed that because fake sugar does not provide extra calories, the confused digestive system fails to regulate food consumption and burn caloriesthe way it would with the real stuff. In summary, it will be best for you to consume small amounts of natural sugar; for example, fruits mixed with yogurt.
Healthy diet always plays important role in body weight loss, especially for sweet stuff, try it out!
This is also good news for people who love doing exercisesand playing sports as in the list of the weird ways to lose weight fast, you are encouraged to do some activities that can make you sweat a lot.
As virtuous as that a kettlebell class that prolongs 60 minutes feels, it is very hard to exercise off weight. All the evidences shows that people need to decrease their calorie consumption for losing weight. However, aside from its advantages for mental and cardiovascular health, exercise plays an important key after you have dropped some extra pounds as your muscle mass compensate by burning lower levels of calories. A combination of toning and cardio exercises5 times on a weekly basis will help in keeping your metabolism humming.
In brief, this is one of the simple ways to learn and apply weird ways to lose weight that you can practice whenever you have leisure time, so try and see how effective it would be for your weight loss process!
Food that can rev your metabolism sounds similar to the stuff of infomercials for late night. However, experts noted that unprocessed (whole) foods will require your body to use higher levels of energyto break down and digest than those which are refined. Thus, you will be able to lose more calories and thereby extra fat when you consume them. You just need to make use of some simple swaps an apple instead of bottled juice, brown rice instead of white, and this actually can bring about a noticeably significant change in your whole body fat over time.
Dinners out and happy hour cocktailsare all essentially invitations in terms of overeating. What you need to do that I want to recommend here is that you should sit at the end of the dining table if possible as according to author of The Thin Commandments Diet psychologist Stephen Gullo, the seats at the center spot will make it easy for anyone to take every kind of dishes during the meal, such as chips, breads, and other types of sharing plates that are often wind up.
This is also one of the most effective and simple to apply weird ways to lose weight fast and naturally for both women and men that I would like to reveal in this entire article and want my readers to learn and apply for good!
Poles typically spend just 5 % of the budget of their family on eating out. On the other hand, according to Statistics Canada, the average family in Canada now spends nearly 30 % of their food budget at and fast-food joints and restaurants. For saving health pounds and money, you should start tracking and then you should try to cut back gradually.
Melodie Yong, dietitian for the St. Pauls Hospital in Vancouver’s Heart and Lung Institute said that people who eat out too frequently tend to gain more unhealthy pounds because they eat less-healthy foods. In fact, the decline of home cooking habit, linked in part to the increasing number of women who have social duties and earn money by working at the office like men, tracks very closely with the increase of risks for developing obesityover the past thirty years.
In fact, this is one of the simplest yet best and most interesting weird ways to lose weight that I would like to reveal in this part of the article and want you and my other readers to learn and make use for good!
All that shaking at Carnaval is not the habit that is body-friendly only in Rio; Brazilians can keep their body slender by consuming this traditional dish with just about every meal. A research in the journal Obesity Research discovered that a diet that primarily consists of beans and rice can help to reduce the risks of developing the overweight issue by about 14% when compared with the typical Western fare. The reason for this amazing and impressive effect is that these foods are relatively low in fat and high in fiber, which is considered being good in stabilizing the levels of sugar in blood. It might be counterintuitive, but a diet containing large amounts of beans will give people a beach-ready body.
This is actually one of the most effective tips and weird ways to lose weight fast and naturally at home for both women and men at all ages that people should learn and remember to make use for good!
In the Netherlands, bikes outnumber people (at 18 million vs 16.5 million). While 40 % of the Dutch’s population uses their bikes for commuting, just 1.2% of work trips in Canada are made by bicycle. Traffic lights in some places in Amsterdam are even synchronized to the speed of biking. While most people in Canada have to struggle with winter diseases and phenomenon, riding bicycles in good weather for pleasure, work or errands totally can help people reduce the risks of being overweight and also prevent unintentional weight gain.
An exercise physiologist at Brock University, Stephen Cheung the man who commutes by bicycle and have a 34-kilometre round trip in 9 months of the year said that biking for commuting and errands can help people burn about five hundreds calories every hour. However, if you add in hill-climbing or up your exertion, you will be able to burn even up to 1,000 calories every hour.
This is actually another good tip on the list of weird ways to lose weight fast and naturally at home without getting any unwanted side effect for people who do not have enough time and money spending on this!
An impressive 75 % of Germany’s population eats breakfast every day, sitting down to fruits, breads, and whole-grain cereals. Nutritional experts have been suggesting people not to skip their breakfast in the morning for years, but recent researches show a better picture of the important role of eating breakfast.In one, British experts found out that if you have not eaten breakfast, the reward center of your brain will light up more vividly when you notice a food that is high in calories making you likelier to indulge.
The scientific director of the Canadian Obesity Network Dr. Arya Sharma said that if people just can make one swap to impact the obesity epidemic, it would be to get people to eat breakfast.
In fact, this is one of the best and most effective, as well as cheapest tips and weird ways to lose weight without exercise that people who do not have much money or time spending on weight and fat lose.
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46 Weird Ways to Lose Weight Fast Without Exercise
Posted: April 19, 2018 at 5:42 am
Important note : Not everybody will react to in the same way to hCG (Human Chorionic Gonaditropin) in other words what is true for one person might not work for another- as such do not get discourage if you dont see the same pronounced results as in others on the same hCG diet all the information provided here is based on peoples testimony and documentation gather from reputable sources online – the before and after pictures are submitted from our most successful customers and they were offered 20% discount incentive to show the very positive results not everyone will achieve this This being said the hCG diet works well , give it a try and see for yourself.
Statement from the FDA : HCG has not been demonstrated to be effective adjunctive therapy in the treatment of obesity. There is no substantial evidence that it increases weight loss beyond that resulting from caloric restriction, that it causes a more attractive or normal distribution of fat, or that it decreases the hunger and discomfort associated with calorie-restricted diets.
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Posted: April 17, 2018 at 11:41 pm
The terms Paleolithic diet, paleo diet, caveman diet, and stone-age diet describe modern fad diets requiring the sole or predominant consumption of foods presumed to have been the only foods available to or consumed by humans during the Paleolithic era.
The digestive abilities of anatomically modern humans, however, are different from those of Paleolithic humans, which undermines the diet’s core premise. During the 2.6-million-year-long Paleolithic era, the highly variable climate and worldwide spread of human populations meant that humans were, by necessity, nutritionally adaptable. Supporters of the diet mistakenly presuppose that human digestion has remained essentially unchanged over time.
While there is wide variability in the way the paleo diet is interpreted, the diet typically includes vegetables, fruits, nuts, roots, and meat and typically excludes foods such as dairy products, grains, sugar, legumes, processed oils, salt, alcohol or coffee.[additional citation(s) needed] The diet is based on avoiding not just processed foods, but rather the foods that humans began eating after the Neolithic Revolution when humans transitioned from hunter-gatherer lifestyles to settled agriculture. The ideas behind the diet can be traced to Walter Voegtlin,:41 and were popularized in the best-selling books of Loren Cordain.
Like other fad diets, the Paleo diet is promoted as a way of improving health. There is some evidence that following this diet may lead to improvements in terms of body composition and metabolic effects compared with the typical Western diet or compared with diets recommended by national nutritional guidelines. There is no good evidence, however, that the diet helps with weight loss, other than through the normal mechanisms of calorie restriction. Following the Paleo diet can lead to an inadequate calcium intake, and side effects can include weakness, diarrhea, and headaches.
According to Adrienne Rose Johnson, the idea that the primitive diet was superior to current dietary habits dates back to the 1890s with such writers as Dr.Emmet Densmore and Dr.John Harvey Kellogg. Densmore proclaimed that “bread is the staff of death,” while Kellogg supported a diet of starchy and grain-based foods. The idea of a Paleolithic diet can be traced to a 1975 book by gastroenterologist Walter Voegtlin,:41 which in 1985 was further developed by Stanley Boyd Eaton and Melvin Konner, and popularized by Loren Cordain in his 2002 book The Paleo Diet. The terms caveman diet and stone-age diet are also used, as is Paleo Diet, trademarked by Cordain.
In 2012 the Paleolithic diet was described as being one of the “latest trends” in diets, based on the popularity of diet books about it; in 2013 the diet was Google’s most searched-for weight-loss method.
Like other fad diets, the paleo diet is marketed with an appeal to nature and a narrative of conspiracy theories about how nutritional research, which does not support the supposed benefits of the paleo diet, is controlled by a malign food industry. A Paleo lifestyle and ideology have developed around the diet.
The diet advises eating only foods presumed to be available to Paleolithic humans, but there is wide variability in people’s understanding of what foods these were, and an accompanying ongoing debate.
In the original description of the paleo diet in Cordain’s 2002 book, he advocated eating as much like Paleolithic people as possible, which meant:
The diet is based on avoiding not just modern processed foods, but also the foods that humans began eating after the Neolithic Revolution.
The scientific literature generally uses the term “Paleo nutrition pattern”, which has been variously described as:
The aspects of the Paleo diet that advise eating fewer processed foods and less sugar and salt are consistent with mainstream advice about diet. Diets with a paleo nutrition pattern have some similarities to traditional ethnic diets such as the Mediterranean diet that have been found to be healthier than the Western diet. Following the Paleo diet, however, can lead to nutritional deficiencies such as those of vitaminD and calcium, which in turn could lead to compromised bone health; it can also lead to an increased risk of ingesting toxins from high fish consumption.
Research into the weight loss effects of the paleolithic diet has generally been of poor quality. One trial of obese postmenopausal women found improvements in weight and fat loss after six months, but the benefits had ceased by 24 months; side effects among participants included “weakness, diarrhea, and headaches”. In general, any weight loss caused by the diet is merely the result of calorie restriction, rather than a special feature of the diet itself.
As of 2016 there are limited data on the metabolic effects on humans eating a Paleo diet, but the data are based on clinical trials that have been too small to have a statistical significance sufficient to allow the drawing of generalizations.[not in citation given] These preliminary trials have found that participants eating a paleo nutrition pattern had better measures of cardiovascular and metabolic health than people eating a standard diet, though the evidence is not strong enough to recommend the Paleo diet for treatment of metabolic syndrome. As of 2014 there was no evidence the paleo diet is effective in treating inflammatory bowel disease.
The rationale for the Paleolithic diet derives from proponents’ claims relating to evolutionary medicine. Advocates of the diet state that humans were genetically adapted to eating specifically those foods that were readily available to them in their local environments. These foods therefore shaped the nutritional needs of Paleolithic humans. They argue that the physiology and metabolism of modern humans have changed little since the Paleolithic era. Natural selection is a long process, and the cultural and lifestyle changes introduced by western culture have occurred quickly. The argument is that modern humans have therefore not been able to adapt to the new circumstances. The agricultural revolution brought the addition of grains and dairy to the diet.
According to the model from the evolutionary discordance hypothesis, “[M]any chronic diseases and degenerative conditions evident in modern Western populations have arisen because of a mismatch between Stone Age genes and modern lifestyles.” Advocates of the modern Paleo diet have formed their dietary recommendations based on this hypothesis. They argue that modern humans should follow a diet that is nutritionally closer to that of their Paleolithic ancestors.
The evolutionary discordance is incomplete, since it is based mainly on the genetic understanding of the human diet and a unique model of human ancestral diets, without taking into account the flexibility and variability of the human dietary behaviors over time. Studies of a variety of populations around the world show that humans can live healthily with a wide variety of diets, and that in fact, humans have evolved to be flexible eaters. Lactose tolerance is an example of how some humans have adapted to the introduction of dairy into their diet. While the introduction of grains, dairy, and legumes during the Neolithic revolution may have had some adverse effects on modern humans, if humans had not been nutritionally adaptable, these technological developments would have been dropped.
Evolutionary biologist Marlene Zuk writes that the idea that our genetic makeup today matches that of our ancestors is misconceived, and that in debate Cordain was “taken aback” when told that 10,000 years was “plenty of time” for an evolutionary change in human digestive abilities to have taken place.:114 On this basis Zuk dismisses Cordain’s claim that the paleo diet is “the one and only diet that fits our genetic makeup”.
Advocates of the diet argue that the increase in diseases of affluence after the dawn of agriculture was caused by changes in diet, but others have countered that it may be that pre-agricultural hunter-gatherers did not suffer from the diseases of affluence because they did not live long enough to develop them. Based on the data from hunter-gatherer populations still in existence, it is estimated that at age15, life expectancy was an additional 39 years, for a total age of 54. At age 45, it is estimated that average life expectancy was an additional 19 years, for a total age of 64 years. That is to say, in such societies, most deaths occurred in childhood or young adulthood; thus, the population of elderlyand the prevalence of diseases of affluencewas much reduced. Excessive food energy intake relative to energy expended, rather than the consumption of specific foods, is more likely to underlie the diseases of affluence. “The health concerns of the industrial world, where calorie-packed foods are readily available, stem not from deviations from a specific diet but from an imbalance between the energy humans consume and the energy humans spend.”
Adoption of the Paleolithic diet assumes that modern humans can reproduce the hunter-gatherer diet. Molecular biologist Marion Nestle argues that “knowledge of the relative proportions of animal and plant foods in the diets of early humans is circumstantial, incomplete, and debatable and that there are insufficient data to identify the composition of a genetically determined optimal diet. The evidence related to Paleolithic diets is best interpreted as supporting the idea that diets based largely on plant foods promote health and longevity, at least under conditions of food abundance and physical activity.” Ideas about Paleolithic diet and nutrition are at best hypothetical.
The data for Cordain’s book only came from six contemporary hunter-gatherer groups, mainly living in marginal habitats. One of the studies was on the !Kung, whose diet was recorded for a single month, and one was on the Inuit. Due to these limitations, the book has been criticized as painting an incomplete picture of the diets of Paleolithic humans. It has been noted that the rationale for the diet does not adequately account for the fact that, due to the pressures of artificial selection, most modern domesticated plants and animals differ drastically from their Paleolithic ancestors; likewise, their nutritional profiles are very different from their ancient counterparts. For example, wild almonds produce potentially fatal levels of cyanide, but this trait has been bred out of domesticated varieties using artificial selection. Many vegetables, such as broccoli, did not exist in the Paleolithic period; broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, and kale are modern cultivars of the ancient species Brassica oleracea.
Trying to devise an ideal diet by studying contemporary hunter-gatherers is difficult because of the great disparities that exist; for example, the animal-derived calorie percentage ranges from 25% for the Gwi people of southern Africa to 99% for the Alaskan Nunamiut.
Researchers have proposed that cooked starches met the energy demands of an increasing brain size, based on variations in the copy number of genes encoding for amylase.
Paleolithic diet – Wikipedia