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Tucson Morning Blend Perfect time to get healthy and lose unwanted weight Heather Rowe 12:21 – KGUN

Posted: April 2, 2020 at 5:49 am

What were you weight loss goals at the beginning of the year? Have you met your weight loss goals? Are you moving in the right direction? Is it hard to stay on track?

Losing "stubborn" fat is hard and as you get older - it just gets harder and harder. You might go to the gym five days a week, sweat on the treadmill for an hour, and see maybe a pound or two drop in a month. Is that really worth your time? Or... imagine going to a medical facility, laying down, spending 25 minutes relaxing, then getting up and finding out you've lost two inches around your waist. Which do you prefer? What if you could keep doing that and losing more and more fat until you looked like you did years ago? If you have any interest in this and how it works when it comes to inch loss, you should stop what you're doing and call the office for an appointment immediately. This new treatment technology - now available in Tucson - uses a special light therapy to trick your mitochondria (in your fat cells) to release their fat content. ULTRASLIM is now cleared for prescription use in the United States as the only noninvasive treatment for immediate fat removal without dieting, exercise. Click here for more information.

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Tucson Morning Blend Perfect time to get healthy and lose unwanted weight Heather Rowe 12:21 - KGUN

Avoid the Hunger Games – Columbiametro

Posted: April 2, 2020 at 5:49 am

As Finnick Odair said before his untimely reptilian demise in The Hunger Games, It takes 10 times longer to put yourself back together than it does to fall apart. While deadly giant lizards may not be peering over your shoulder as you navigate the dieting process, trying to lose weight once it is gained can still feel like your own personal dystopia.

Over the years, a plethora of diet plans have promised to help anyone trying to lose weight, gain muscle mass, or just stay healthy, but most achieved a limited level of success, had no plan for long term sustainability, and/or advocated behavior that ran contrary to any kind of common sense. Fletcherism in the early 1900s encouraged followers to chew their food until it was completely liquefied before swallowing. It cut back on dinner conversation and failed to produce any lasting results. The pray your weight away approach popular in the 1950s was equally ineffectual, as was the grapefruit diet; and, the once-popular cookie diet did lead to some weight loss, but it produced some embarrassing side effects that made even eating cookies seem less than desirable. The sleeping beauty diet might have seemed like a dream come true, but since it advocated the use of sedatives to avoid overeating it was, in fact, extremely dangerous and ultimately deemed a form of extreme eating disorder.

Subway sandwiches, cabbage soup, baby food, apple cider vinegar, liquid diets, only fruit, no fruit, no protein, only protein each scheme had its day of reckoning with the American weight-conscious public, but most either didnt produce results, were impossible to maintain, or, in the case of some pre-packaged food plans, were unreasonably expensive for most people to pursue.

Experts agree that what makes a good diet and what needs to be the cornerstone of any weight loss plan is first and foremost practicality. If too much work is involved in finding and preparing food or if the program completely excludes the possibility of enjoying a meal with others who arent scrounging the earth for the exact balance between ingredients or consuming products that only come in mail-ordered cellophane, it will not be a sustainable diet. Dieters should find a program that stays within the USDA dietary safety guidelines and wont threaten overall health by depriving the body of essential nutrients or, in the case of the sleeping beauty diet, keep the person under sedation. Ideally, sugar should be decreased significantly, sodium limited, fruits and vegetables emphasized, and sleeping pills should not be any part of the equation.

Protein is still a big part of current healthy eating habits, and dairy, especially the low-fat variety, seems to be making a comeback. Puffs, rather than chips, are the new go-to snack food, and cauliflower, dehydrated pea protein, and quinoa are replacing the traditional grain ingredients in many carb-heavy entrees. Below are the top 2020 diet plans, some of which incorporate many of these fashionable food trends and all of which promise both long-term results and sustainability.

Mediterranean Diet

Ranked No. 1 in health benefits, weight management, and ease of implementation by many diet experts, the Mediterranean diet emphasizes the consumption of plant-based rather than meat-based foods. It probably will not satisfy those seeking a quick fix for being overweight, but it may reduce the risk of heart-related illnesses, improve overall health, and, when followed consistently, result in some weight loss.

Named due to its reliance on foods typically eaten in countries that border the Mediterranean Sea, this diet focuses on healthy fats, such as those found in olive oil and fatty fish, vegetables, fruits, beans, and eggs. Herbs and spices replace a reliance on salt, whole grains are encouraged, and some dairy products may be eaten in moderation. While red meat is not completely forbidden, small lean portions consumed only occasionally are allowed. And adding to its high marks in both popularity and sustainability, red wine is on the yes, you may in moderation list.

Flexitarian Diet

This diet is similar to a vegan or vegetarian diet but with much more flexibility, thus the name. The goal is to add more plant-based foods without taking any choices completely off the table. The founders encourage a three-four-five approach to eating: 300 calorie breakfast, 400 calorie lunch, and 500 calorie dinner, plus two 150 calorie snacks. Depending on body size and activity level, these numbers can be changed because, again, its flexible. And while non-meat proteins, such as beans and eggs, as well as vegetables, fruits, and whole grains are the primary foods consumed, the occasional red meat entry or sweet dessert is permitted.

Flexitarian enthusiasts claim that it is an easier and thus more sustainable diet method than other stricter plans that allow for no compromise. At the same time, it still yields a slow yet steady rate of weight loss while simultaneously lowering the risk of heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. Because of its lack of absolute constrictions, the number of flexitarian recipes that fit into the guidelines are endless; however, if you are not a huge fan of fruits and vegetables or dont enjoy preparing many of your own meals, this might not be for you.


Promoted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, this Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension is one of the top diet plans for 2020. Once again, the emphasis is on plant-based foods, but DASH also strictly regulates sodium intake, starting with a beginning daily allowance of 2,300 milligrams that is ultimately streamlined to 1,500 milligrams of sodium a day. Full-fat dairy products, red meat, and sugar-sweetened desserts and beverages are discouraged, promoting instead the consumption of lean proteins, low-fat dairy, vegetables, and whole grains.

The primary goal of the DASH diet is to stop or prevent high blood pressure, but if followed long term, it may also lead to weight loss and better overall health. Followers do have to be responsible for much of their own cooking to keep the salt at bay, so if spending time in the kitchen is not an enjoyable experience, long-term sustainability may not be achievable.

Whole30 Diet

While the flexitarian diet naturally promotes flexibility and the Mediterranean and even the more rigorous DASH diets allow for a little give and take now and then, the Whole30 does not, especially during those first 30 days.

An offshoot of the popular Paleo diet, which allows only clean unprocessed foods, the Whole30 diet starts with a 30-day strip down of everything participants put in their mouths. The rules are unyielding: the first 30 days prohibit the consumption of any processed foods, alcohol, dairy, sugar, grains, and legumes. No cheat days, no nibbling contraband, and no special occasion sipping are allowed. The goal is to eliminate unhealthy food cravings and to reset hormonal, digestive, and immune systems.

On day 31, some forbidden foods may slowly be reintroduced into the diet one item at a time, allowing the participant to assess his or her bodys reaction to the newly allowed food. If no ill effects occur, then that food may stay on the only occasionally list, but if the reintroduction produces any sort of negative symptom, physical or emotional, then it needs to be eliminated completely.

Participants do tend to lose weight quickly during those first 30 days, but some individuals may have difficulty committing to that level of minimalist eating, which is even harder to follow long term, even after the 30-day commitment is completed.

Keto Diet

Any diet that advocates eating chocolate, albeit the extremely high in cacao and low in sugar version, is going to be popular. Designed to help followers lose weight through the elimination of body fat, Keto followers ironically consume mostly foods that are very high in fat. Proponents of this extreme rendition of a low-carb diet argue that eating mostly fat will cause the body to start burning body fat rather than carbs, and they suggest a daily food intake breakdown of 70 percent fat, 20 percent protein, and 10 percent carbs or sugar. The goal is to enter a state of ketosis, in which stored body fat is broken down and fat, rather than sugar, becomes the primary energy source.

While Keto followers will lose weight quickly, the strict limit on carbs may be too stringent for some to use as a long-term approach to dieting, and it could have negative health effects as well.

Intermittent Fasting

Unlike other diets, no foods are forbidden and calories are generally not counted during mealtimes, although healthy, low-fat foods are encouraged. Instead of sticking to strict, unyielding guidelines to what they eat, proponents of intermittent fasting pay attention to when they eat. The most popular method is the 16/8 plan: followers eat only during an eight-hour period, perhaps 11 a.m. to 7 p.m., and then abstain from all food and beverages, with the exception of water, for the remaining 16 hours. Other versions of this diet plan include the 5:2 method, in which food is eaten normally for five days in a week, but severely (500 calories or less) limited the remaining two days a week; or the Eat-Stop-Eat method, in which nothing at all is eaten one or two days a week, but a normal, healthy diet is encouraged at all other times.

The goal for fasting plans is similar to the Keto diet: encourage the body to use fat, rather than sugar, for energy. In addition to losing weight, intermittent fasting followers also claim to have a more positive relationship with food, making healthier choices when eating is permitted.

A couple of possible red flags come with intermittent fasting. Some experts suggest that there is a risk, especially during exercise, of burning both body fat, which is good, and muscle mass, which is not. Another concern is that fasting may eventually lead to a slowdown in body metabolism. On the positive side, while changing patterns of eating may be difficult initially, the diet has very few constraints. And since the actual dieting, i.e. fasting, time is limited to certain periods of the day or week, normal interaction with non-dieters is much easier to maintain.

Like the diet crazes of yesteryears, time will tell whether these popular programs will help lead weight conscious followers to positive results and long-lasting health benefits. But if we learned nothing else from The Hunger Games, we know that hope is stronger than fear and that to succeed at anything you need to be your own victor.

May the dieting odds be ever in your favor!

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Avoid the Hunger Games - Columbiametro

This Guy Lost 145 Pounds in a Year by Eating 6 Meals a Day – Men’s Health

Posted: April 2, 2020 at 5:49 am

I used to find comfort in food, says Brian Brister, eating not only when I was sad but also when I was happy. The 32-year-old fashion photographer from Los Angeles, California, struggled with his weight for a long time; as youngster, hed been diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis after gaining almost 60 pounds. He started taking medication, but kept gaining weight. I didn't knowor have the desire to learnhow to eat healthy, he says.

Even living in New York City and walking everywhere, Brister was largely inactive. And healthy eating was still out of reach. I could go days without eating a single vegetable, except French fries, if that even counts, he says. Constantly tired, unable to bend over to tie his shoes, and having to sit down after climbing a single flight of stairs, he felt defeated. Then a series of knee surgeries left him couch-ridden for five months. He gained another 50 pounds, bringing him to 330. He was 30 years old.

Hed nearly resigned himself to that life, but a few weeks later he met with a coach from the healthy weight and habits company, OPTAVIA. Brister decided hed try it for a month, even though, he says, he didn't actually believe anything would change. At the end of the month, he had dropped 32 poundsand that convinced him.

The program had him focusing on a healthier diet, which was a big change for Brister. He started eating six times a day: five were nutrient-dense and portion-controlled, and one was a meal of lean protein and three vegetable servings. He started drinking more water.

It was all part of a project to change his mindset around his health. At first, it was tough to resist his typical large, carb-heavy meals, but he soon found he liked learning new ways to cook, and discovering new vegetables to eat. He also liked working on hydration and sleep. As he changed his habits, he found he had more energy and mental clarity. He began moderate exercise, including pushups and planks or jogging.

In 12 months, he lost 145 pounds. I underwent a major physical, emotional and spiritual transformation, he says. I feel like a completely different person. He can hike and walk around without knee pain; hes able to lead songs at church without feeling winded. Hes even weaned himself off of caffeine. I still drink coffee because I love it, he says, but I rarely feel like I need it.

Dropping the weight gave him more confidence, Brister says. I have more energy, more mental clarity and I'm stronger in so many areas of my life. Hes become a coach himself, and shares his story to inspire others to keep striving. Hes just ten pounds from his goal weight; from there hes excited to work and tone his body. Losing weight has been amazing, but keeping that weight off long term will be the real win, he says.

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This Guy Lost 145 Pounds in a Year by Eating 6 Meals a Day - Men's Health

Coronavirus: alcohol is bad for your immune system here’s how to give up – Real Homes

Posted: April 2, 2020 at 5:49 am

Coronavirus and alcohol are bad mates, according to health experts. Alcohol sales have gone up a whopping 20 per cent since the coronavirus lockdown was implemented: a worrying statistic, since there is a well researched link between excessive alcohol consumption and a weakened immune system.*

Want to know how to give up alcohol for good, beyond lockdown? Or at least cut down? Drinking alcohol is one of the trickiest habits to beat as it's been part of many human cultures for a very long time. For lots of people, it's a part of their social lives; for others especially right now it may be their go-to way to relax or beat boredom. Yet alcohol has been proven time and time again to have many negative effects on human health. What's more, it costs us a lot of money...

Give Up Alcohol Self Hypnosis...

The following tips for quitting alcohol are aimed at people who aren't happy with how much they're drinking and would like to drastically cut down on or give up alcohol altogether. If you're already happy with just the occasional glass of wine, you probably don't need this advice. On the other hand, if you're a very heavy drinker and think you have alcohol dependency, you should always seek professional medical advice before attempting to quit.

There are endless benefits to giving up alcohol. From improved mood and better sleep to more money in your bank account. Of course, giving up drinking is a personal choice, and you may have your own reasons for wanting to give up, but here are some hard facts that'll help reaffirm your decision:

How to give up drinking is really dependent on how regularly and how much you drink. The more regularly you drink, the harder it'll be to give up, so be prepared for a long process. Give yourself at least a year to give up completely, and don't beat yourself up if you slip up now and then when out with friends. All of the following tips are aimed at making it easy(ier) for you to quit, rather than relying on superhuman levels of willpower.

1. Stop buying alcohol

If you regularly buy a bottle of wine for dinner, it's unrealistic to expect yourself not to reach for said bottle when it's in the fridge in the kitchen. Especially if you have a completist personality (i.e. you have to finish what you started), make sure there's no alcohol readily available in the house, except on special occasions. If this is too difficult, start buying half bottles or mini bottles, which most supermarkets stock these days. Shopping online at the moment? Don't order wine in bulk, tempting as it may be.

2. Buy expensive alcohol

How much do you spend on alcohol a week? Add up the cost of all the bottles and get in the habit of getting just one expensive bottle with that amount instead. Developing a taste for fine wine may sound counterintuitive, but the higher the price of your booze, the less likely you'll be to buy it often.

3. Set yourself a realistic timeline

Don't expect your desire to drink to evaporate overnight. Instead, try drinking half the amount you have been in the first month; then slash it again the next month, and so on, until you go down to little or no drinking. Do this over six to 12 months.

4. Prepare yourself for questions

It's likely that while you're giving up drinking, you'll get a lot of 'why?' questions. If they make you uncomfortable, it may be easier to prepare generic answers in advance (e.g. 'I'm training for a marathon'), rather than feeling the need to explain your reasons in detail.

5. Start a reward piggy bank

If giving up alcohol feels a little like punishment, make it into a reward instead by saving up the money you would've spent on booze for something you've wanted for a while. Make sure you buy it, too!

6. Get into cooking

For some people, a glass of wine is partly a way of making a routine meal a bit more fun. If you're trying to give up drinking, it makes sense to try and vary your meals a little by buying a nice cookbook and experimenting in the kitchen.

7. Get an accountability partner

People are social creatures and are much more likely to accomplish their goals when they feel they're doing it together with someone else. This doesn't mean you have to tell everyone you know you're giving up drinking; just one close friend is enough.While in lockdown, schedule regular video calls to discuss your progress.

8. Don't feel bad if you don't hit your targets

To reiterate: giving up drinking is not a form of punishment for how 'bad' you've been. If you have a setback (a birthday or a wedding, for example), be kind to yourself and move on. it's all the other days you didn't drink that week/month that matter.

9. Join a recovery programme

Speak to your GP to see what they recommend, but while you're waiting for an appointment, investigate Alcoholics Anonymous as a first port of call.

*See this study which examines the ways in which alcohol has been shown to disrupt the immune system.

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Coronavirus: alcohol is bad for your immune system here's how to give up - Real Homes

Matt White: It’ll be a pretty level playing field by the time competition starts –

Posted: April 2, 2020 at 5:49 am

Mitchelton-Scott head sports director Matt White says he believes if racing restarts in mid-June that the majority of riders will have had enough training on the road to create a level playing field.

In an interview released by Mitchelton-Scott, White revealed that "85-90 per cent" of the team's riders are currently under complete lockdown, in which they can't leave their homes except to access essential services, and he addressed concerns that riders who are able to train outside will have an advantage when racing resumes later this summer.

"We hope that towards the middle to end of April everyone can be back on the road to some degree," White said. "So when you look at our starting point, which in the best-case scenario is June, I think everyone will have a month to six weeks on the road before we start competing. I think by the time we start back into competition it'll be a pretty level playing field."

Nonetheless, White admitted that, at the moment, riders who can currently train on the road are getting more fitness than riders who are stuck on home trainers.

"The guys who can get out on the road now can get out and do four-five-hour rides, which is the norm," he said. "Whereas the guys at home are on the home trainer for an hour to 90 minutes at the most. They are probably going at a bit of a higher intensity, but they're just not able to do the volume of training they would normally."

White said the Mitchelton-Scott riders are doing a variety of workouts at home, depending on their goals and current level of fitness.

"Obviously, the Classics guys were just approaching a peak period for their part of the season," he said. "Some of these guys have kept up training to replicate the periodisation of when their Classics season was going to finish in 10 days' to two weeks' time. Some of them kept up with a bit of intensity and structured training, and then they will have their 'rest' after Paris-Roubaix [original April 12 date], as they would have normally.

"Other guys, for example guys who were preparing for the Giro d'Italia, have had their goals shifted," White said. "So at the moment they are doing a bit of light stuff, mainly to keep fresh mentally. They aren't used to doing nothing, so a lot of guys are just ticking along with training, staying mentally active, jumping on some 'BikeExchange Where the World Rides Series' sessions on Zwift with the team and socialising with their teammates online."

Nutritional requirements for the riders have also changed.

"Guys have to be very stringent on what they are consuming at the moment because they are just not putting out the same amount of energy expenditure as they normally would," he said. "We've got some guys who don't really struggle with weight at all, and those guys might put on a little bit of weight, and we're talking a couple of hundred grams, but then other guys have to be really careful.

"The last thing you'd want is to have a month at home and come back 3kg heavier," he said. "Then you're behind the eight-ball because not only do you have to increase training load, but you also have to lose weight. That's sometimes something riders deal with in the off-season, but not in the middle of the season, and that's where we are at the moment."

White also addressed the current status of the 2020 Tour de France, whose fate race organisers ASO said they would reveal in April. White said he believes the worst of the coronavirus Covid-19 pandemic will have passed by July, but he wondered if conditions would be such that a race would be safe.

"I am pretty sure that, by the month of July, things might have calmed down a considerable amount, but will they have calmed down enough to safely support a couple of thousand people, coming together from different parts of Europe and the world, for the Tour de France?" he said.

"We're not talking about four or five venues; we are a travelling circus. We're talking about 2,000 people teams, media, logistics and movement between 20 hotels over 25 days. Safety has to remain the priority."

White said if ASO wants to keep the current Tour dates (June 27-July 19), riders need to be back on the road training by May.

"If athletes aren't on the road by May, there's no way you can run a competition in June," he said. "We have to have some competition before the Tour de France. You can't have the Tour de France as the first race. That doesn't work for the riders simple as that.

"In the next four-to-five weeks, it's crucial that the virus infections come down to a very low level in Europe," he said. "At the moment we're not seeing that, and I would think that as it stands at the moment, it would be pretty hard to run the Tour de France at the current dates, starting at the end of June."

White suggested that with the 2020 Tokyo Olympics having been postponed until 2021, the ASO has an opportunity to move the race further back in July or possibly even to August.

"Maybe that's the most viable option to run the Tour de France in full, and I'm sure that's what the ASO wants to do they want to run a three-week Tour de France," he said, adding that a Tour de France without crowds would be "weird" but viable, as long as it is safe to do so.

And, he said, if the race does go ahead, it could be one of the best fields ever.

"The Giro has never not been on before the Tour de France, and because we've been starved of a couple of months of racing in spring, people aren't going to be 'sitting out' to wait for the Vuelta a Espaa," he reasoned. "In a normal season that happens because they've already ridden the Giro, or a young rider can wait for the Vuelta because they've had a lot of racing in spring.

"I think in the best-case scenario, there will be a lot of guys hitting the Tour de France with 20 race days under their belt, some will have even less, and that's if the Tour de Suisse and the Critrium du Dauphin run beforehand," he said.

"It's going to be strange, but it would be a very competitive race."

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Matt White: It'll be a pretty level playing field by the time competition starts -

Apple Steals Popular Weather App From Android – Best gaming pro

Posted: April 2, 2020 at 5:49 am

Microsoft appears to be engaged on a brand new brand for its Bing search engine. The search engines new brand appears to be a part of the bigger Fluent Design rebrand inside Microsoft.

As its possible youll bear in mind, Microsoft began introducing Fluent Design-inspired icons for its Workplace suite again in 2018, with the corporate later asserting its plans to revamp over 100 icons in 2019. Most lately, the corporate began introducing new Home windows 10 icons impressed by the identical model.

The brand new Bing brand is basically what youll count on: a way more fashionable brand, with a Fluent Design affect. The brand not has sharp corners, and it has some depth that makes it stand out, too. The brand new brand isnt considerably completely different from the prevailing Bing brand, and thats a superb factor.

Right heres the way it seems to be like within the search outcomes pages:

Microsoft is but to formally announce the brand new Bing brand, however we consider that is the primary time were getting a have a look at the brand new Bing brand. The corporate appears to be A/B testing the brand new brand with a small portion of customers, and our tipster spotted the brand new brand with Bings area set to US (English).

A Microsoft spokesperson stated the corporate has nothing to share concerning the brand new Bing brand in the mean time.2

Tagged with Bing, Fluent Design, Microsoft

Tech specialist. Social media guru. Evil problem solver. Total writer. Web enthusiast. Internet nerd. Passionate gamer. Twitter buff.

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Apple Steals Popular Weather App From Android - Best gaming pro

CO2 and You-What the Pandemic Teaches Us About Nature – Planet Princeton

Posted: April 2, 2020 at 5:48 am

The crisis with the novel coronavirus is teaching us some hard lessons about the importance of national preparedness and collective action. With the economic shutdown and social distancing causing many to head to nature preserves for solace and exercise, the pandemic can also help us better understand our relationship to nature. As explained below, that relationship plays out in every breath we take.

The power of natureFor one, the viruss capacity to shut down an economy shows how powerful nature is, and the perils of placing all value on economic growth while taking nature for granted.

Internal vs. external threatsThe pandemic also shows how much more seriously we take problems that affect us internally rather than externally. Coronavirus, which attacks us from the inside, has achieved in three months the sort of concerted action and acceptance of sacrifice for the greater good that an external threat like climate change has yet to spur in three decades. Environment by definition refers to what is all around us, and has historically achieved political priority only when the sight or smell of pollution caused in us a visceral response, or an invisible menace like radiation threatened us internally. A CO2 buildup in the atmosphere may threaten our collective future, but it is neither a direct threat to our senses nor our health.

The fallacy of individual innocenceWhile posing a physical threat to our insides, this coronavirus is also changing our perceptions of ourselves. Because the virus can be asymptomatic, each of us could potentially, unwittingly put others in danger simply through proximity. It shows how our bodies and our actions can pose a threat despite a complete lack of intention.

Libertarianism, which opposes government interference and believes that people should be free to live their lives and pursue their interests as they see fit as long as they do no harm to another, has long foundered on its second principal. Weve known for many decades that it is impossible to do no harm to others when we each as individuals use machines whose exhaust is altering the atmosphere, radicalizing the weather and flooding coastal cities. Our lack of ill intent, our view of ourselves as good people, our noble motivations for using the machinesthese have nothing to do with actual collective consequence. What each of us does has a small but collectively vast global impact. Again, coronavirus is teaching us in three months the lessons that many have resisted learning from climate change over three decades.

The biggest threats are not always the most lethalAnother lesson this particular coronavirus teaches is that the biggest threats are not always the most obviously lethal. There have been more deadly coronaviruses. SARS killed 10%, MERS more than 30%, of those known to be infected, but their higher kill rates actually served to inhibit their spread. Though COVID-19 has a relatively low mortality rate, it has caused the most disruption. The most dangerous kind of coronavirus, it seems, is one that can spread rapidly by being very contagious but selectively lethal. Similarly, the biggest threat to the earths climate is excess CO2, a molecule with less power than some but which has become dramatically more abundant and persistent in the atmosphere. Its lethal consequencesa superstorm here, a megafire thereare also selective, leaving many thus far unscathed.

The magic and power of CO2 in our bodieshow carbon serves as natures batteryCoronavirus is additionally relevant to climate change through the mechanism by which it threatens peoples lives. By inflaming the lungs and thickening their walls, the virus not only slows the transfer of oxygen from the air into the bloodstream, but also prevents CO2 from escaping from the body. Exhaling excess CO2 is just as important for our survival as inhaling oxygen.

Its worth taking a moment to explore the elegance and beauty behind the normal breathing we usually take for granted. Our breathing is part of a magic show that perfectly matches the plant worlds own brand of magic. A plant takes invisible carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air, strips the carbon of its oxygens and packs the carbons with energy from the sun, much like we charge a spent battery. The plant builds these energized carbons into visible tissues full of sugars, carbohydrates and fats. We in turn eat the visible food, extract the energy from the carbons, then send the spent carbons flying out of our mouths as CO2, now invisible and airborne, to fly back to plants on the wings of oxygen. Blow into your hand and feel the carbons you ate as food just hours before. Breathing is how we lose weight. Our consumption and respiration is the equivalent of now you see it, now you dont.

Coronavirus causes CO2 to build up to dangerous levels in our bodiesThough the CO2 constantly building up in our bloodstreams is essentially exhaust, a bi-product of our internal combustion, nature in its brilliance makes use of what seems like mere waste. Our bodies use the CO2 to strictly regulate our bloods acidity and flow. Though the CO2 floating in the air all around us poses no threat to our bodies, CO2 in our bloodstream is a powerful molecule that must be carefully regulated. Any significant rise or drop in concentration could be life-threatening. Many thousands of times a day, the constant streaming of CO2 from cells into our bloodstream triggers an impulse to breathe, not only to take in more oxygen but to keep ridding the body of excess CO2 that otherwise could do damage. Coronavirus sabotages this beautiful, elegant, essential system, blocks the CO2s escape from the bloodstream, and thereby prevents our bodies from regulating themselves. Thus the critical need for ventilators.

The magic and power of CO2 in natureThe critical importance of regulating CO2 levels extends to nature. As soon as the CO2 exits our mouths, it loses its power over our bodies but becomes active in the earths atmosphere. Nature, again in its brilliance, utilizes our exhaust not only as a convenient, ever-ready food for plants to build their bodies with, but also to regulate the temperature of the earth and the acidity of the oceans. As with a tiny coronavirus, CO2s invisibility is part of its power. Floating like an invisible blanket in the atmosphere, CO2 lets the suns light energy reach the earth unimpeded. But when that light hits the earth, or the roof of our homes, or our skin, the light energy is transformed into heat. Our skin burns because of this instantaneous change of solar energy from light to heat. The CO2, which affects the earth like the glass windshield affects the inside of a parked car in the summer, lets light through but prevents the resultant heat from escaping. Thats the greenhouse effect, and that, too, is a beautiful part of the earths functioning until somethingour machinesputstoo much CO2 in the atmosphere, causing too much heat to be trapped.

Because the livable planet is only skin-deep, human activity beginning with the industrial revolution has increased the atmospheres concentration of CO2 by nearly 50%. The earth heats up and radical changes in climate and sea level are set in motion. Like with our bodies, a change in overall temperature of even one degree can have consequences.

Nature as a body we live withinThat is how I came to view naturethe plants, animals, oceans, air and soilas a body, as much in need of careful regulation as our own bodies. The plants are the earths lungswhisking away excess CO2 and supplying oxygen. Animals are the earths cellsconstantly burning energy and releasing CO2. The atmosphere and oceans are the earths circulatory system, carrying oxygen to the animals and CO2 to the plants in a mutually beneficial exchange. We live in this body, the body of nature, as if it were a womb that feeds us and, in past eras, conveniently absorbed and cleansed all our waste. Its a body that is not much more than a skin on the earth. That is how the famous blue marble photo of earth, said to have transformed our awareness of our place in space, is both informative and deceptive. The living earth is not a massive solid ball, but more like the skin of a balloon, barely penetrating into the ground, and rising only a mornings vertical walk into the sky. Our world is vast only when viewed horizontally. Look up or down and the boundaries of the living world are close at hand.

Like coronavirus, a fossil fueled economy causes CO2 to build up to dangerous levels in natures bodyWhat a glorious systemthis thin-skinned body of a living eartha system whose built-in stability and predictable cycling of the seasons has allowed all of life, including us, to thrive. And how are we unintentionally but knowingly and profoundly messing up that system? It is not us so much as our machines, not our machines so much as the combustion by which they are powered, and not so much their combustion as the nature of their fuel. Fossil fuelI wish there were a better name, what with its forced, phoo-phoo doggy alliteration and wimpy consonants that defeat an emphatic delivery. But there it is. Were stuck with the name and increasingly stuck with the consequences. Fossil fuel means buried fossil life converted by intense pressure over eons into fuels deep underground. All that carbon safely sequestered down there in deposits of coal, oil, and natural gas. Wise it would be to leave it there, keep it out of action so that the concentration of carbon in the atmosphere remains within a stable range. But no. The stuffs just too good to leave alone, too extraordinary in its concentration of power, too useful.

Imagining natures trauma in our own bodiesThis is where viewing ourselves as inhabiting the body of nature can help us understand what our machines and the economy they supercharge are doing to the earth. Imagine your body were the living skin of the earth, and you were doing just fine, combusting and exhausting carbon, keeping your CO2 levels within a safe range, when an invasive civilization of microscopic creatures began constructing a whole new network of roads, airports, and homes inside your skin. And that tiny but expanding network had minute machines for mobility and comfort that began to emit a steady pulse of more CO2 into your body, so much that it outstripped your lungs capacity to expel the excess. Your body, unable to accommodate this additional burden of exhaust, would be in mortal danger.

The body of nature needs a ventilatorThis is what our coal- and oil- and natural gas-combusting economy has been doing to that surprisingly thin, skin-deep body of nature we live within. The plant world and the oceans cannot accommodate the extra load of CO2 constantly being emitted by the economy we have installed on this planet.

Though nature here is being portrayed as a body, I have not seen any evidence that nature is an entity that can intentionally communicate with us in any way. There have, however, been two crises that seemed uncanny in their timing. One was Hurricane Sandy, which arrived in the last week of the 2012 presidential election, during which climate change had gone nearly unmentioned. The other is the arrival of the COVID-19 coronavirus, which imposes on the human body an imbalance not unlike what is being perpetrated upon nature. It could be seen as a See how it feels! moment, meant to inject the perpetrators with a dose of empathy for the nature we inhabit and abuse, just before the 50th Earthday.

But my guess is that nature doesnt work that way. If portrayed as a character in a play, Natures personality would be one that quietly serves while stoically enduring relentless mistreatment. As the play continued, Nature would increasingly lash out with randomly deployed superstorms and megafires. Maybe the other characterspeoplewould come to their senses, would extend to Nature the empathy they feel for each other, begin to give back to Nature and work with it, and most importantly, stop overwhelming its lungs with exhaust.

This post originally appeared on Steves Princeton Nature Notes blog.

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CO2 and You-What the Pandemic Teaches Us About Nature - Planet Princeton

How to Leverage The Power Of Intelligent Assist Devices To Achieve Operational Efficiency – Assembly Magazine

Posted: April 2, 2020 at 5:48 am

What changes is your warehouse implementing this year to increase your operational efficiency? A lot of warehouses will be looking at factors like implementing the ABC system, optimizing receiving areas, and reducing overall inventory levels. While these are valid ways of increasing productivity within the warehouse environment, it's not addressing one of the most fundamental parts of the materials handling process: how you handle the product.

Improving how your team handles product can be a key factor in increasing productivity and achieving operational efficiency. Through an examination of your current methods, you may find that it's time for your warehouse to put Intelligent Assist Devices (IADs) to work. Here's why more and more warehouses are using them and how they might be the right solution for your efficiency concerns.

Many warehouses augment their labor force's ability to quickly, safely, and efficiently handle materials through the use of Intelligent Assist Devices (IADs). If you don't know what IADs are already, you will soon. They are quickly becoming a mainstay in the materials handling industry. So much so that the Robotics Industries Association put together a team to define what IADs are and how they function.

At the most basic levels, IADs are ergonomic handling equipment that augments the user's lifting capabilities with servo drive systems. IADs can take a variety of forms, but one key feature is that they are ergonomic. IADs behave like a natural extension of the worker's arms and hands. The IADs using sensing technology that allows them to translate the user's force into precise movements.

The applications for IADs are nearly limitless in the manufacturing, distribution, and assembly industries. IADs are being incorporated in factories and warehouses to assist the human labor force with repetitive, difficult, or time-consuming lifting and moving tasks. As more and more people see the technology in action, they are finding ways to put it to work on their own material handling needs.

Increase Speed on the Production, Assembly, and Distribution Line

IADs move as fast as the operator wants them to move. That means workers are able to move even heavy, awkward items much faster than before. Since the speed is variable, IADs are also great for operations where workers need to move quickly at some points and slower at others. The IAD empowers the worker to increase their pace and provide greater efficiencies on the line.

Users can also program some IADs to return automatically to the start position. This eliminates the time the user would need to spend putting the tool back "home" after each use. They can instead focus their attention on the next task while the IADs readies itself for its next use. That can eliminate wasted time on the job and vastly speed up production times.

Improved Ergonomics in the Workplace for the User

IADs act as a natural extension of the worker's arms and hands. The devices seamlessly integrate into the workstation, providing a safer way for the worker to do their job. Improved ergonomics translate to higher production numbers with fewer accidents and injuries.

The devices also offer automatic weight compensation. If users need to pick up items in a variety of weight classes, the IAD will automatically adjust to compensate for the weight. That means users get the same benefits no matter how much weight they are lifting and there is no need to stop and reprogram the device.

Easy to Train Workers on Their Use

Because IADs are ergonomic in nature and respond to the user's intent, training on the devices takes only minutes. Users will be able to put the new machinery to work almost immediately. That means there is little downtime for training and managers see improvements to productivity right away.

Quick training times give IADs another operational efficiency advantage: worker acceptance. Because of their seamless integration into the work station and ease of use, workers are far more likely to put IADs to work than traditional lifting devices. That means capital invested in the systems won't go to waste. If workers decide they don't like to use a lifting device, they put themselves at greater risk of injury by working around it. Not only is it a waste of time and resources, but unused lifting equipment can also result in more downtime. Worker acceptance of IADs is high and a key to their success in the materials handling industry.

Reduced Risk When Moving Delicate Products

The computer sensors inside the IADs provide precise, controlled movement. That helps the user guide delicate machinery into place, even if it's heavy or awkward. The controlled movements and variable speeds mean workers can move as slowly as needed to get products into place. This gives a big advantage when it comes to positioning delicate machinery.

Controlled movements mean there is less risk of user error and accidental damage to materials. It's human error that's responsible for most of the damage that happens in production or during pick and pack. An automation hybrid like an IAD helps reduce that risk. Lower shrinkage means a healthier bottom line.

Help Lower the Incidence of Injury from Strain and Repetitive Motion

Repetition and strain injuries are two of the most common causes of worker injury in the materials handling environment. IADs can greatly reduce the risk for workers, giving them the means of performing difficult tasks safely. That means fewer worker's compensation claims, fewer sick days, and higher productivity (not to mention happier, safer workers).

IADs help to reduce the risk of strain by compensating for the weight of the item. Assembly Magazine notes that Gorbel's G-Force IAD makes a 150-pound load feel like three pounds. That means users don't need to stress their musculoskeletal system to get heavy loads moved into place.

IADs are safer, faster, and more user-responsive than traditional handling devices. While the benefits are numerous, it's important for individual warehouses and manufacturers to carefully weigh the pros and cons of putting these devices on the line.

If you are curious about the benefits of bringing IADs to your warehouse, check out this case study from the Rochester Institute of Technology.

There is no one-size-fits-all IAD solution for materials handling. Which device, where it's installed, and how it's used will all depend on the individual application needs. That's why it's important to consider all the IAD options and carefully weigh the features and benefits. Then you can determine which device is right for your material handling needs. Gorbel offers several customizable IAD solutions for the material handling industry, offering benefits such as:

The G-Force Q and G-Force iQ

Gorbel offers two intelligent lifting devices that adapt to a variety of environments, the G-Force Q and the G-Force iQ. Gorbel offers G-Force options for higher capacities, faster speeds, and more responsive performance. That way you can get the device that's needed to get the job done. This lifting device is ideal for applications in the automotive industry, heavy equipment manufacturing, parts assembly, repetitive lifting tasks, and much more.

The Easy Arm Q and Easy Arm iQ

The Easy Arm is an intelligent lifting arm that uses the G-Force device in combination with an articulated jib crane. This is a great option for smaller workspaces looking for a plug-and-play solution. The units are ready to install when shipped and simply bolt to the floor. That makes them easy to reposition in the future, too, if the needs of your materials handling team change. These Easy Arm systems are especially useful if users need to reach around obstructions, work overhead, or unload machined parts.

Ready to implement technology into your warehouse that can help you achieve your operational efficiency goals? Talk to the Gorbel IAD team to learn more about which intelligent lifting device may be right for your materials handling needs. Get in touch with us today by giving us a call at 1-844-268-7055 or filling out the form on our contact page.

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‘Do your planning now’: EvergreenHealth CNO’s stark warning to American hospitals – The Daily Briefing

Posted: April 2, 2020 at 5:48 am

EvergreenHealth, located in Kirkland, Washington, was unexpectedly the first U.S. acute care hospital with COVID-19 patients and has been at the forefront of early learnings ever since. Mary Shepler, CNO at EvergreenHealth, spoke with Carol Boston-Fleischhauer, Chief Nursing Officer at the Advisory Board, about the hospitals early experiences and key advice she would give to health care executives that are bracing for a COVID-19 surge.

Slide deck: How to support your workforce and shore up resiliency during an emergency

Question: Mary, thank you so much for the opportunity to talk about EvergreenHealth's early response to COVID-19 and what you have learned. In many ways your health system is leading the country on this, and leaders would appreciate hearing your story. Could you review what steps you initially took when you realized you had the first U.S. hospital cases of COVID-19?

Mary Shepler: As you know, EvergreenHealth was the first hospital to care for inpatients who tested positive for COVID-19. While those first two cases of COVID-19 hit us very quicklyin fact, almost overnightwe had been planning for and anticipating its arrival, just like all other hospitals and health systems across the country.

So when we received the positive results for COVID- 19 on the evening of Friday, February 28. We immediately activated a full-scale incident command center, which I believe was one of our early success points.

To support the needs of these critically ill patients, we rapidly converted a number of our inpatient units to negative airflow; and we designated half of our ICU unit for ICU patients and the other half for progressive care patients. We quickly updated our employees involved in caring for these patients on guidelines being released by the CDC. Subsequently, we also closed off half of the 48 treatment rooms in the ED that also provided negative airflow for the care of COVID-19 patient.

We also launched a multi-tiered communication strategy. We began immediately with communication to patients who had tested positive and their families; other patients hospitalized in our organization in the ED or other areas of care; our staff who had cared for the positive patients; and all staff and providers. We also prepared for the immediate and ongoing communications to the community at large.

Beyond daily updates to our employees and physicians, we needed to work with local and national media in order to support and ensure accurate and transparent information was being shared at both local and national levels. We welcomed the CDC and the health department within days after the first diagnoses. So, another lesson: As you prepare for the surge, be sure you have a communication strategy, for both internal and external audiences. Be prepared to advance a plan and messaging that creates understanding and builds trust though an active and engaged dialogue.

Q: It sounds like your incident command center was critical to early decisions. But, were there any challenges that presented themselves in the first two weeks?

Shepler: Given that we had two undiagnosed COVID-19 patients in our organization without initial knowledge, one of our trials was determining how to support all of the employees who had been inadvertently exposed.

Using the EMR as a tracer, we confirmed that approximately 200 employees had been exposed prior to the diagnosis being confirmed, including several physicians. As you can imagine, the consequences of furloughing all employees who had come in contact would significantly impact those staff members and the organization. So, working with the CDC we were counseled that as long as the employees were asymptomatic and wearing appropriate PPE, including a mask, they were safe to come to work.

As guidelines changed regarding safety practices for employees, our policies changed alsoabout three times in the first 10 daysresulting in frequent and ongoing communications and, most importantly, adjustments in practice for the staff involved.

We quickly decided to do active monitoring of all employees, including all those at the bedside. Anyone who touched a patient was having their temperature taken twice a day and their symptoms documented. For testing criteria, we stuck to a temperature of 99.5 or asymptomatic. We have since moved to screening all employees in the organization, and guests and visitors, as well.

Hindsight being 20/20, we struggled over that first weekend to figure out testing criteria and the process for quickly getting symptomatic employees tested. It was at this point when we also looked into purchasing an in-house analyzer that allowed us to do COVID-19 testing in our own laband we were able to get that up and running in a matter of 7 days.

We also set up two drive-thru testing station processes: one for area first responders and a second for our staff and patients.

Q: That's a lot of exposed staff. Did you have to augment the workforce with other employees?

Shepler: Beyond extending traveller contracts, we brought in crisis RNs, which to no surprise, increased the operating expense of COVIDas we've learned about every aspect of our care and operations related to the virus. We also changed the nursing ratios in our progressive care unit, adjusting for patients' acuity and support neededobviously some patients needing more support than others.

Following CDC guidelines, we were early to suspend elective surgeries, and consequently, we've included nurses in the ICU schedule who typically work in the OR or PACU, and we provided educational resources to support their clinical skills to work in acute care areas.

Q: How are you managing PPE?

In the first three days we noticed, as expected, our supply was dwindling, so we started even more purposeful conservation methods early and immediately began ordering and purchasing new PPE and other supplies, including ventilators. We launched a centralized PPE committee that manages the distribution of PPE across departments to mirror patients needs. We also provide refreshed training to ensure that everyone knows the importance of appropriately using PPE and is accurately donning and doffing their equipment.

Im especially proud of the creativity my team has applied in anticipating our staffs needs as our patient volume increases. Clinicians use Capris, which safely allow them to share hoods with colleagues and sanitize them as required. Clinicians also now store our N95s in Tupperware containers to ensure they can be safely reused. Additionally, in some cases, we transitioned from exclusively using disposable gowns to using reusable gowns, which allows us to launder them and get them back within 12 hours.

Q: Now I'd like to shift the focus a bit to discharging COVID-19 patients. Given you're so far ahead of the rest of the country, you're likely one of the first health systems to actively face this question. What have you done to coordinate patient care and transfers to post-acute organizations?

Shepler: Yes, we have discharged people from our hospital and I think that's one of the stories thats underreported. Patients get better and go to a post-acute care setting, if not home. So, we standardized a process to carefully manage our discharges, whether from the ED or an inpatient unit, to the correct next level of care.

Most nursing facilities require two negative COVID-19 tests for a patient to be admitted. While this has presented a challenge, we have found a solution to meet their requirements. So, we work very closely with the receiving post-acute care organization, and we assess each transfer to ensure the care they will be receiving is acceptable for the level of care that they require. To support our patients needs, we ensure the post-acute provider has adequate PPE, and if necessary, we help them find the appropriate resources.We cant afford the post-acute care providers to not be ready, that will only create another surge for us down the line.

For inpatients discharged to home, our homecare nurses and staff follow up with consistent standard protocols to ensure continued healing. Families of our patients need additional support in the home setting, as well. Emotional support is especially critical as they learn how to take care of their family member as well as themselves, and our home care team is trained to help them learn new protocols for their own safety as well as their loved ones safety.

Q: How are your employees holding up?

Our employees, physicians, volunteers have been incredible in terms of stepping up over and over to the meet the needs of our patientsand each otherin this community health crisis.

But they all feel painfully the fear of coronavirus. They fear for the safety of their family and friends, their own personal safety, their financial survival and of course uncertainty about the future we have yet to see, and grief for the loss of a life that is forever changed. Together we are defining a new norm and supporting each other along the way.

We have continued to put in place support for our employees and physicians. For example, our social work department and behavioral health staff are doing regular debriefs and counseling on the units. We continue to have solid communication channels with all leaders and employees regarding this ever-changing situation.

What weve learned most is that this is a marathon; and every day we look forward to taking on the next two miles. So, you have to focus early and stay with it, learning to pivot and make changes, often working under the pressure of having very little time to act. Managers, as always, bear much of the weight of the changes in routine operations and no less so during a pandemic. Anything that can be done to support their emotional needs and their workloads, beyond operational support, needs to be put in place as well.

Q: Given that you are one or two weeks ahead of a lot of other hospitals as far as a COVID-19 response, what advice would you offer your peers in other locations?

Shepler: If I have to pick one point of wisdom for my colleagues, its this: if YOU have time, do your planning now. Again, we were a hospital that literally had no warning that we had COVID-19 in our communityand, that COVID-19 was already present in our patients. So, we needed to redesign our entire clinical and support operations within 48 hours, and continue to redesign given the changing guidelines and changing circumstances. There was no map for this marathon we were running in and within an hour of receiving those first two test results. Every hospital in the country is now at various stages of a potential surge, some in dire circumstances; but in many cases, you have some lead time. Use it.

Monitor the modeling for your community and consider resourceshuman and material, not just PPE. Be sure your disaster planning structure is in place and that it can be quickly implemented. You've got to think about supplies and not just PPE, but other supplies such as ventilators and EKG pads, medications and the like; supply chain planning is critical. Model the surge and the staff and supplies needed to reflect the needs, and know you are already in the marathon, and have miles ahead.

Workforce planning, clarity about employee testing criteria, and mechanisms to support employees and physicians getting to work is all important to plan for. Ensuring employees and physicians are safe at work is critical in your initial planning. Think carefully about your staffing model; these patients are extremely ill and require greater staffing than the typical vent patient; so, consider how you will support patient care at the bedside. Who will you redeploy to help with basic physical care and support, and how will your care model change?

One final point of learning: Plan early with your ethics committee to be prepared should any ethical decisions be necessary that are not routine in nature.

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'Do your planning now': EvergreenHealth CNO's stark warning to American hospitals - The Daily Briefing

Cycle computers everything you need to know –

Posted: April 2, 2020 at 5:48 am

A cycle computer provides a range of information about your ride, from basics like speed and distance to time to your destination, bragging-rights fodder like maximum speed and even the time of sunset. And cyclists love numbers weights, wheel sizes, frame geometries so a cycle computer can add a useful extra dimension to your riding. Here's a look at what a bike computer can do for you.

The way a cycle computer works is simple. Each time a magnet on the wheel passes a sensor on the fork a signal is generated. The bike computer measures the time between those signals and works out how fast you're going, based on the wheel dimension you gave it on initial set up.

From that measurement the computer can also work out a whole range of information including distance, average speed, ride time and maximum speed. Depending on the designer's choices it may also have features like auto on/off pausing the stopwatch when you're stationary and different types of timing and average speed. You may get average speed only when you're moving, or for the whole ride, and likewise for time.

More sophisticated cycle computers may also be able to warn you if you drop below a target average speed, say, or provide an estimate of how long it'll take to arrive at your destination.

Some bike computers can measure your heart rate by picking up signals from a sensor strapped to your chest. Heart rate is a useful indicator of how hard you're working if you're riding for fitness or, say, to lose weight.

Some cycle computers with heart rate function will also provide an estimate of how many Calories you've burned. With rare exceptions, these should be taken with more than a pinch of salt. They are useful for comparing one ride with another, but don't hit McDonald's hard just because a computer says you've burned off the equivalent of three Big Macs.

In cheaper bike computers the sensor and handlebar unit are connected with a wire; more expensive computers use a wireless transmitter in the sensor. Wired cycle computers only have one battery to run down, but make your bike look untidy and the wires can get damaged. Wireless bike computers need a battery in the transmitter as well as the head unit, but are tidier and have no wires to snag.

If you're going to use a computer with a turbo trainer, the magnet and sensor need to read from the rear wheel. Some wired cycle computers won't reach far enough and (more rarely) some wireless units have sensors that won't fit the chainstays.

Cycle computers will usually keep out heavy rain, but experience shows the level of water resistance varies. In particular, models with altitude functions should not be immersed in water. They need a vent in the case for the altimeter to work, which can let water in.

The level of water resistance is indicated by the IP Code, which shows the level of vulnerability to dust and water ingress. Not all manufacturers provide it, but it's a useful guide if they do.

You'll find these features on bike computers priced between about 10 and 40. More expensive units in this price range have bigger screens so they can display more information at once. Some have extra features such as the ability to switch between preset wheel sizes so you can switch them between bikes.

Speed How fast you're going.Average speed Can be measured only when the computer detects movement or for the whole period between starting and stopping the timer.Maximum speed For gravity-assisted bragging rights.Cadence How quickly your legs are turning. Needs an extra magnet and sensor on the crank.Average cadenceMaximum cadence For 'how fast can you spin' contests in bike shops on rainy Wednesday afternoons.Ride time Can be measured only when the computer detects movement ('moving time') or for the whole period between starting and stopping the timer.Time of day For people who still think digital watches are a pretty neat idea.Over/under average speedRide/trip distance How far you've been on this ride.Odometer How far you've ridden. Some cycle computers allow you to set an initial value so you can carry your records over from a previous unit. Or cheat.

From about 50 and up you get extra features such as heart rate detection, altitude and the ability to add even more features by pairing with your smartphone.

Heart rate How fast your heart's beating. Requires monitor strap round your chest.Average heart rate Indicates how hard you have worked over a whole ride.Maximum heart rate The biggest effort you've put in.Altitude Height above sea level. The unit measures atmospheric pressure and extrapolates your altitude from that.Maximum altitude The highest point you reached.Total ascent Bragging rights for Alpine pass-storming. Less useful in Cambridgeshire.Total descent What goes up must come down.Temperature Often comes with altitude as it's needed to interpret the pressure sensor data.

Different computers will have different sets of secondary functions that rely on these. These include heart rate zones and targets for training, elevation profile, lap timers, averages and maximums per lap and so on. You may also be able to download ride data from the computer to analyse later.

The latest generation of cycle computers come with apps that wirelessly connect the head unit and your phone. That means as well as its built-in functions, the computer can access your phone's sensors to provide functions such as using Global Position System (GPS, the basis of satellite navigation) to record where you've been.

Why not just use an app on your phone? The main advantage of a phone/app combination is battery life. A phone running GPS and screen will drain its battery in a matter of hours. Turning the screen off increases the run time.

Another advantage is that instead of being perched on your handlebar, your expensive phone is safely tucked away in a pocket or bag.

Bike computers with smartphone pairing also record data from your ride for later analysis.

Computers that pair with smartphones cost about 100.

As mentioned above, if you have a smartphone, the cheapest way to get GPS recording is to get a computer that will talk to it. If you prefer to have everything in one box, then you'll need a GPS-enabled computer.

Cheaper models use GPS to record where you've been and may have minimal navigation functions, but if you want full sat-nav capability you'll need a more expensive model with a screen large enough to display a map.

Basic GPS-enabled computers can be had from around 80, while a unit with maps and sat-nav functions will cost from 140.

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