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West Roxbury against the world: Somebody paying to advertise alleged threat to neighborhood from bicycle conspiracy – Universal Hub

Posted: October 16, 2019 at 4:50 pm

People in West Roxbury - and Roslindale - who get those blue ValPak envelopes filled with coupons this week got at least one "coupon" that advertises an alleged conspiracy by the "bicycle lobby" and people from outside the neighborhood to destroy West Roxbury by forcing bike lanes onto Centre Street, and down the throats of the good citizens of that leafy neighborhood.

The "coupons" do not indicate who paid for them and do not mention that the city ignored calls to do something about pedestrian problems along the windy four-lane road until a West Roxbury resident walking in a Centre Street crosswalk died after being hit by a motorist who said she was blinded by the sun - at the same intersection where another West Roxbury resident suffered a traumatic brain injury three years earlier when he was hit by a motorist who sped by another driver who had stopped to let him walk across the street.

After an emotional meeting at the West Roxbury Elks Club following Marilyn Wentworth's death, city planners began looking at a proposal to essentially narrow Centre Street to three lanes - one travel lane in each direction and a turning lane in the middle, with pedestrian islands at several intersections.

The proposal would allow for dedicated bike lanes - the street does not currently have any. At a raucous meeting at Holy Name School, some people who do not live in West Roxbury, including the owner of a Jamaica Plain bicycle shop, supported the plan. However, the bulk of bicyclists - or parents of bicyclists - who rose to support the idea gave West Roxbury addresses, and discussed how they tried to avoid Centre Street because it is so dangerous.

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West Roxbury against the world: Somebody paying to advertise alleged threat to neighborhood from bicycle conspiracy - Universal Hub

World Food Day 2019: Why we must prevent food wastage – Down To Earth Magazine

Posted: October 16, 2019 at 4:50 pm

It is a moral and technical failure in a world where hunger and malnutrition have yet to be eradicated

Few issues have generated as much public interest in recent years as food loss and waste, widely agreed to be a moral and technical failure in a world where hunger and malnutrition have yet to be eradicated.

In 2011, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN) ignited public awareness of this with a report, produced with the Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology.

This report estimated that one-third of the food produced globally is never eaten. That figure and the research underlying it remain widely cited today.

That was eight years ago. FAO has been working hard since to tailor pilot programmes in the field and to improve practical understanding of how to make it possible to reduce food loss and waste as pledged in Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 12.3.

We have developed the Food Loss Index, which will allow countries to measure the amount of food lost after harvest and through storage, transportation and processing but not including the retail level where loss formally becomes waste, which is under the remit of UN Environment. Solid and comparable data are needed, both to monitor progress and to identify best practices.

This years State of Food and Agriculture Report (SOFA) is devoted to mapping concrete and viable ways so that we can actually cut food loss and waste rather than just decry them.

We have a new number: 14 per cent. Thats the updated estimate for global food losses. Keep in mind that available data is quite fragmented and that as its quality improves which it must the estimate could be revised.

This number should not be compared with the 2011 assessment as weve sharpened our methodology to include factors such as economic value and nutrition it turns out that micronutrient losses due to food loss and waste are disproportionately high.

Also, food waste is not included in the loss estimate, and we know the figure for that can be very high, due largely to poor household management skills in wealthier countries and to energy and storage inadequacies in poorer countries. Estimates for food waste range from a few percentage points to as high as one third, depending on the country.

One striking fact revealed in the SOFA 2019 report is that food losses often occur in places where hunger is more prevalent. That points to a clear urgency in tackling its causes.

That said, there is no magic formula that relates food loss and waste to hunger. Access to food and its affordability, not availability per se, is a prime cause of undernutrition.

Moreover, if lower loss and waste led to lower demand, rural smallholders could face further income restraints that would worsen their dietary situation. On this note, emphasis should be given to efforts and incentives to link reduced food loss and waste with improved food quality such as reducing aflatoxin in maize that can raise market price premiums and farm incomes.

FAOs close review of what we know about food loss offers a reminder that there is no one-size-fits-all solution. For example, cassava, a staple in much of the tropics, perishes much more quickly than potatoes in temperate regions do.

Practically, it is wiser to formulate public interventions aimed at reducing food loss and waste to broader objectives, particularly goals related to natural resources and climate change. Agriculture has a major footprint in terms of the worlds water and land use and in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, so anything we produce but dont eat has a negative impact beyond our dietary needs.

As SOFA outlines with trends organised by region and food types where food insecurity and natural resource strains are prominent, interventions early in the food-supply chain are more effective, while trimming waste at the consumer and retail level are the best strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

While FAOs new Food Loss Indicator is a clear tool for making member states and stakeholders accountable, it is also designed to make it easier for all countries to draw a clearer picture of their local situations and identify value-chain bottlenecks and critical loss points where action can leverage the most efficient gains. Investments think storage and logistic facilities but also a slew of coherent and integrated incentives and knowledge inputs will be required.

We hope the indicator will also help catalyse the production of more data. Current estimates can vary enormously and cover too few food crops and types.

FAOs goal is to help member states achieve their pledge and improve peoples lives. Its time for action and in particular viable actions on SDG12 and the target of reducing food loss and halving food waste by 2030. Theres a lot of work to do, yet also a lot of collateral benefits to harvest.

Mximo Torero Cullen is Assistant Director-General, Economic and Social Development Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

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World Food Day 2019: Why we must prevent food wastage - Down To Earth Magazine

Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Examined in New Research Report – Midnight Stocks

Posted: October 16, 2019 at 4:49 pm

The globalTestosterone Replacement Therapy marketrides on the back of technology. As consumer focus shifts from access to comfort, players in the market for Testosterone Replacement Therapy are looking at new opportunities to capitalize on the potential. This exclusive report from Transparency Market Research will take you through an extensive analysis of every aspect in the Testosterone Replacement Therapy market that is critical for defining your success strategy. It offers prudent information on markets under currents, trends that will open new doors, factors that will remain important, challenges that need to be overcome, prevailing competition in the market, and the geographical landscape.

Based on a tested and proven research methodology, our research analysts bring to you fact-checked information. Besides presenting the current market figures, our analysts provide you with accurate forecasts that can be the game-changer for your winning strategies for tomorrow. On the other hand, our reports also offer tailor-made insights. Further, our reports are packed with experts viewpoints which are transcribed from interviews conducted by our analysts.

For every market, information on leading players can be the difference between success and failure, be it a prominent brand or not. Our reports cover every significant players in the global Testosterone Replacement Therapy market providing information about the company profile, products, winning strategies and market revenues. Not just that, TMR also provides information on the competitive landscape, helping you understand what impacted in one company being the market leader and others not. It also explains on the companies imperatives that define their success in the global market for Testosterone Replacement Therapy.

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Healthcare, unlike most industries, is typical of the region. Humans have multiple races and hence their genetic makeups are different. As a result, one condition has different impacts depending on the region. Therefore, information on how consumer requirements are different in regional landscape of the global Testosterone Replacement Therapy market is provided her in the report. Further, the economic capabilities of a country has a huge impact on healthcare infrastructure. TMRs report analysis the current economic scenario and also brings to you information on affordability during the coming years.

From market share to region-specific strategies, the report covers it all. At the same time, players in the Testosterone Replacement Therapy market who are looking to expand might want to assess the potential of a prospective region. Our reports can provide you with custom-made insights for specific regions in the global Testosterone Replacement Therapy market. The geographical analysis also covers regions-specific factors that could turn out to be hurdle for growth in the coming years.

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Testosterone Replacement Therapy Market Examined in New Research Report - Midnight Stocks

Healthy Food for All – Union of Concerned Scientists

Posted: October 16, 2019 at 4:47 pm

Diet-related illnesses like diabetes, hypertension and heart disease take a terrible toll in human lives, well-being, and healthcare costs. These health impacts hit the most vulnerable members of our communities hardest. And there is solid evidence connecting this epidemic of metabolic disease to a national diet that is far too high in processed foods and added sugar.

We know how to make ourselves healthier: eat more fruits, vegetables, whole grains and lean proteins, and cut down on added sugars, processed foods, and meat. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, published every five years by USDA and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has been communicating this science-based message to the public for a long time now.

Unfortunately, one key player is conspicuously ignoring the US governments nutrition advice: the US government. Federal farm policy continues to incentivize overproduction of corn and soybeans, which are mostly used to produceyou guessed itadded sugar, processed foods, and meat. We need new policies that do more to enable US farmers to grow healthy food.

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Healthy Food for All - Union of Concerned Scientists

Florida Man Eats Only Macaroni and Cheese For 17 Years, Here’s Why – Newsweek

Posted: October 16, 2019 at 4:47 pm

A man in Florida has spent the last 17 years of his life chowing down on pretty much nothing but macaroni and cheese. He knows he has an eating disorder, he knows it has horrible health benefits and he acknowledges it has affected his social life.

The man is simply known as Adam in a video by Vice, who first brought the story to light. Adam lives with his grandparents, Richard and Fay, in a small town northeast of Gainesville called Keystone Heights.

Adam said that as a child he was physically abused by his father so bad that he was removed from the home by the Department of Children and Families.

He said he developed Post Traumatic Stress Disorder from the situation, and that he found comfort in soft pasta shells covered with cheese. He tried other foods, and even tried other foods and flavors inside his mac and cheese. He settled for the regular box from the grocery shelves and nothing too fancy.

He knows the ingredients that comprise macaroni and cheese can be harmful to his health.

"Some of the stuff I'm familiar with," he said of its ingredients. "Other stuff sounds like it could be used to make a nuclear weapon."

Adam has gotten so used to eating nothing but mac and cheese that even the mere thought of trying new foods, or even new flavors or twists to his everyday dish, makes his stomach turn.

Though only 20, he has made this his meal for 17 years now. It was not until after he was out of high school when he saw a YouTube video that described his eating disorder known as Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID).

"Oh my God," he recalls thinking when he first saw it. "I'm not crazy. It has a name."

A researcher on the topic said such behavior isn't uncommon for children who stick to certain foods in order to eat foods they don't like, or may think they won't like.

"While picky eating (accepting a food one day but eschewing it the next, or systematically avoiding some non-preferred foods, such as broccoli) is common in youthparticularly in preschoolerschildren typically expand their diets as they mature," researchers said in the Orlando Sentinel.

His eating disorder has reached into his psyche, saying he does not want to go out with friends solely because of his penchant for only wanting one dish.

"It's definitely a problem," he said. "I'm sick of it, but at the same time I don't want anything else."

Then there are the problems of eating something loaded with carbs so many times a day and not having an outlet. Adam has recently addressed part of that problem as he has taken up boxing, which allows him to work off heavy carbohydrates.

Working out four times a week has allowed Adam to lose weight and "counteract my terrible, awful, carb-filled diet."

Additionally, he has begun seeing a therapist in hopes to expand his pallet. This could lead to a healthier lifestyle and a better social life.

"It's a stepping stone to being able to do the things I want to do, easier," he said.

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Florida Man Eats Only Macaroni and Cheese For 17 Years, Here's Why - Newsweek

Dumplings without pork? Swine fever is hitting Chinese consumers – CNN

Posted: October 16, 2019 at 4:47 pm

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Read more from the original source:
Dumplings without pork? Swine fever is hitting Chinese consumers - CNN

High blood pressure: Sprinkle this on your meals to lower your reading – Express

Posted: October 16, 2019 at 4:47 pm

High blood pressure happens when the first of blood pushing against a persons artery walls is consistently too high. Over time, the force and friction of high blood pressure damages the delicate tissues inside the arteries. This can lead to deadly cardiovascular complications. Fortunately, making simple dietary tweaks can lower a persons reading, including eating a certain superfood.

Flax seed has long been a staple in European and Asian cuisines. According to a Canadian study published in the journal Hypertension, people who added 30 grams of ground flax seed to their diet every day for six months saw their systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading) drop an average 15 mm Hg and their diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) an average eight mm Hg.

By comparison, people taking a placebo supplement had slightly increased systolic blood pressure while diastolic pressure remained steady.

A drop in systolic blood pressure is significant.

As Blood Pressure UK noted, systolic blood pressure - the highest blood pressure when the heart is squeezing and pushing the blood round the body - provides the best indicator of a persons risk of having a stroke or a heart attack.

The study researchers said the level of blood pressure decrease from adding flax seed could result in 50 percent less strokes and 30 percent less heart attacks.

Echoing these findings, a large review looking at data from 11 studies found that taking flax seeds daily for more than three months lowered blood pressure by two mmHg.

While that may seem insignificant, evidence shows that a two mmHg reduction in blood pressure can lower the risk of dying from stroke by 10 percent and from heart disease by seven percent.

The health benefits of eating flax seeds may be due to the fact that it is a rich source of fibre.

As the NHS points out, eating a low-fat diet that includes lots of fibre, such as wholegrain rice, bread and pasta, and plenty of fruit and vegetables helps lower blood pressure.

Aim to eat five portions of fruit and vegetables every day, advised the health body.

In addition to upping fibre, fruit and vegetable intake, cutting down on the amount of salt one consumes also helps to keep blood pressure in check.

The NHS recommends people aim to eat less than six grams (0.2oz) of salt a day, which is about a teaspoonful.

Exercise also plays an integral role in blood pressure control. As Harvard Health explained: A stronger heart can pump more blood with less effort. If your heart can work less to pump, the force on your arteries decreases, lowering your blood pressure.

According to the health site, regular exercise can lower a persons systolic blood pressure by an average of four to nine millimetres of mercury (mm Hg).

That's as good as some blood pressure medications, it added.

According to the NHS, adults should do at least 150 minutes (two hours and 30 minutes) of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, such as cycling or fast walking, every week.

Find out the best drinks to lower blood pressure.

Read more from the original source:
High blood pressure: Sprinkle this on your meals to lower your reading - Express

On All-Hamburger Diets and the Coming End of a West Coast Restaurant Institution – Scout Magazine

Posted: October 16, 2019 at 4:47 pm

The Intelligence Brief is our weekly compendium of food and drink news sourced from outlets all over the world.

It seems that research is constantly changing its mind about what we should and shouldnt be eating. This recent study on red meat consumption is no different.

If there are health benefits from eating less beef and pork, they are small, the researchers concluded. Indeed, the advantages are so faint that they can be discerned only when looking at large populations, the scientists said, and are not sufficient to tell individuals to change their meat-eating habits.

But before you go switching to an all-hamburger diet, the NYT followed up on this report with 5 important takeaways from the debate that ensued after the hotly contested study was published.

News flash! VancouversBeta5 Chocolates is opening a new 16-seat cafe!

A very Happy Birthday to Victoria restaurant institution Johns Place, which just turned 35 years old.

Scout recently paid a visit to Seattle and came back with food and drink recommendations galore! Check out the full list here.

These whimsical, pop culture-themed meals show just how far one mom will go to get her son to eat healthy.

A new partnership between two Vancouver Island seafood companies shows promise in the development of a west coast seaweed venture.

Malindi Taylor of Fanny Bay Oysters and Taylor Shellfish provides a lesson on the art of eating bivalves.

Baileys season is upon us and VinePair shares 14 things we should all know about everyones favourite cream liqueur.

Eating via Instagram honours this week go to @pourhouse because when it doubt, just put an egg on it.

David Chang is opening a local version of his Momofuku Noodle Bar concept in the upcoming Vancouver House development.

Executive Chef Sam Harris of Victorias Boom + Batten shares his favourite spots to eat and drink around town.

Vancouvers much anticipated Open Outcry opened its doors to the public on Thursday. Scout paid the new restaurant and bar a recent visit during its final preparations.

From face scrubs to foot care, Eater asks a few hard working line cooks about their self-care routines.

Islandist reports on Tofinos first zero waste concept store, Frankly, which is set to open soon.

Given the terrifying realities of climate change, its good to know that theyve figured out how to grow meat on the international space station. Mmmspace beef.

Five-time Olympic ice dance champion Tessa Virtue recently paid a visit to Vancouver and dished on some of her favourite ways to indulge when shes in town.

From dosas to raman and fried chicken to sushi, the Vancouver Suns Mia Stainsby shares her picks for the best restaurants in the citys West End.

How current irrigation practices are taking a serious toll on rivers and streams across the high plains in the US.

Vancouvers Granville Island Market will be making an appearance in the upcoming season of David Changs Ugly Delicious on Netflix.

In sad news for Vancouvers South Granville neighbourhood, after almost 20 years in business, West Restaurant will be closing its doors for good this December.

Stop trying to make healthy cocktails happen! Theyre not going to happen:

Marrying booze with ostensibly healthful ingredients doesnt negate alcohols harmful effects; it adds baggage to what should be a purely hedonistic pursuit.

Breakfast just got a little better as The Takeout recently released their Cheerios power rankings (although how Honey Nut only came in at #5 is beyond me).

Looking for work in the industry? Check out whos hiring on the mainland and on the island!

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On All-Hamburger Diets and the Coming End of a West Coast Restaurant Institution - Scout Magazine

Was Victorian Life Really So Bad? 5 Reasons Why The Victorians Were Happy – BBC History Magazine

Posted: October 16, 2019 at 4:47 pm

The most familiar images of Victorian life are bleak indeed: impoverished children working long hours in factories and mines; blankets of smog suspended above overcrowded cities; frightening workhouses run by cruel governors; violent criminals lurking in the shadows. In black-and-white photos of the period, people both high and low-born are invariably unsmiling a miserable bunch, surely?

There is some truth in this portrayal. The twin processes of industrialisation and urbanisation did force a drop in living standards for some, and the turbulent decade after Queen Victoria came to the throne became known as the Hungry Forties. These years were punctuated by economic depression leading to social unrest, popular protests and growing fears of revolution.

Such impressions can be explained by the collision of three unique processes. The first, combining industrialisation and urbanisation, had acutely visual effects. Just as important was the expansion of print culture, which provided a vehicle for such images as well as a growing and captivated audience. The third ingredient, equally crucial, was the emergence of a reforming spirit among the social elite from the 1830s onwards. Grave images of deprivation were circulated precisely because reformers such as Dickens, Disraeli and Gaskell, plus journalists and MPs, wanted to remedy such social problems.

But was life truly miserable? Did the labouring poor believe they were living in exceptionally tough times? Social historians have worked hard to give voice to those at the bottom, uncovering new evidence and taking a fresh look at old material related to five aspects of life. In doing so, they have challenged the very grimmest portrayals of urban Victorian Britain

1 Were the mills really dark and satanic?

Workers toiled in dangerous factories or mines but conditions improved substantially. The mention of work in the Victorian period rarely fails to conjure up an image of an imposing factory or a bleak mine, run by a merciless employer, in which employees including small children are forced to work long hours, often in poor light, using dangerous machinery. It is a picture created by novels such as Dickens Hard Times; by government inquiries, such as Ashleys MinesCommission of 1842, which exposed brutal physical and moral conditions; and by scandals about real factories throughout the century. But is it accurate? Not entirely.

Industrialisation in the early 19th century did drive down wages and lead to an increase in the employment of women and children, especially those of a very young age, in the manufacturing sector. Work in factories and mines certainly could be dangerous. In 1879, one MP who had visited a Bradford textile factory in the late 1830s described the 80 crippled and deformed children gathered for his inspection in the courtyard: No power of language could describe the varieties, and I may say the cruelties, in these degradations of the human form. They stood or squatted before me in all the shapes of the letters of the alphabet.

However, from the 1830s onwards, legislation was introduced to restrict child and (in some cases) female labour, to improve conditions and to regulate working hours. Reforms were limited, but often by the realities of working-class life. Take child labour, for example. While it offends our 21st-century sensibilities, it was not necessarily socially detrimental after all, the wages that children brought in could raise the standard of living for the entire family. The alternative schooling cost money and rarely bettered a childs future prospects.

Whats more, working in a factory could be preferable to other types of paid work. Days were controlled by the clock, but they were not necessarily longer than those of agricultural labourers. Clocking in and out, combined with the physical separation of work and home, could be more attractive than the endless days of domestic servants another expanding industry. For every merciless master there existed at least one paternalistic employer who cared about his workers. Some even created model villages near workplaces for families to live in some comfort, one of the most famous being the Cadburys Bournville establishment near Birmingham.

Not only did some workers enjoy protection for traditional holidays (raucous St Monday festivities continued as late as the 1870s in the West Midlands) but time for leisure increased: the working day was limited to 10 hours, and the Saturday half-day was introduced. Many employers organised trips for their workforces to the seaside.

Even employees without these privileges were increasingly able to enjoy an expanding world of leisure, as workers real wages increased from the middle of the century. At the same time, industrial unrest and popular narratives of factory accidents subsided because the majority of working people became more comfortable with new patterns of work and industrial capitalism.

2 A route out of poverty

Not all paupers were condemned to hellish workhouses. One of the most enduring images of the Victorian period is entirely fictional: the painfully hungry Oliver Twist begging the tyrannical workhouse beadle, Mr Bumble, for gruel. Charles Dickens wrote his novel in the wake of the New Poor Law of 1834, legislation that aimed to reduce government spending on welfare by deterring the poor from seeking assistance. Local relieving officers were tasked to send those in need to the workhouse, where families were split up. Those who could work were pressed into hard labour and those who couldnt were cared for at the minimum standard. All were subjected to a harsh disciplinary regime.

Some workhouses were abhorrent institutions. Local penal authorities were convinced that paupers deliberately tore their uniforms or smashed windows in order to be sent to prison where both accommodation and food were better.

The workhouse also held a special attraction to journalists eager for explosive copy. In 1866, James Greenwood disguised himself as a vagrant to spend a night in the male casual ward of the Lambeth Workhouse. After being registered, he was forced to bathe in a liquid so disgustingly like weak mutton broth and allocated a shirt and rug, then entered the ward to find 30 men and boys stretched upon shallow pallets which put only 6 inches of comfortable hay between them and the stony floor. These beds were placed close together In not a few cases two gentlemen had clubbed beds and rugs and slept together.

But how helpful are such portraits in understanding the experience of poverty in Victorian Britain? They certainly have their limits. Written between 1837 and 1839, Oliver Twist could at best describe conditions only in pre-Victorian poorhouses, and the New Poor Law was in practice not nearly as harsh as its promise probably why campaigns against it died away fairly quickly.

Young children carry heavy loads in a Midlands brickyard in this 1871 illustration from The Graphic, a weekly London newspaper. It has been estimated that between 20,000 and 30,000 children aged under 16 worked in British brickyards at the time. (Photo by Ann Ronan Pictures/Print Collector/Getty Images)

Its also worth acknowledging that workhouses functioned as providers of services ranging from education to health care, particularly from the mid-1860s onwards when improvements in provision were made.

Whats more, poverty was not a permanent state but often a condition that working people, or even lower middle-class people, could slip into and out of, depending on circumstances. And the poor had multiple resources upon which to draw. First was charity, which many socially conscious and religiously motivated elites were only too eager to supply. And the poor were not docile recipients of this charity. They knew just how to play the role required to secure funds combining a display of respectability with evidence of poverty.

Secondary survival strategies ranged from gleaning (gathering leftover grain after harvest), keeping livestock, co-residence and pawning, to less legitimate activities poaching, petty crime, prostitution and fraud. The poor routinely pawned their Sunday clothes early in the week to put food on the table, and redeemed them on Saturdays after wages had been collected. A London pawnshop assistant described the merriment of the trade on Saturday evening: Some was eating fish and chips, some was eating tangerines, some had pease pudding and faggots. Cor blimey it was like Mother Kellys doorstep in there.

3 The war on dirt

Urbanisation and industrialisation worsened living conditions for town dwellers. New industries pumped pollutants into the air and water. Expanding populations increased pressure on existing sewerage. Overcrowded neighbourhoods deteriorated into slums. The most notorious St Giles, Old Nichol and Jacobs Island in London, Angel Meadow in Manchester were immortalised by artists, journalists and novelists, and some even featured in Baedekers famous travel guides.

The need to address such problems was recognised at the start of the Victorian period. To the investigations of reformer Edwin Chadwick must be added protestations from residents of ground-floor and cellar apartments inundated by sewerage overflows during heavy rain. Those living beside urban burial grounds witnessed daily the turning out of recently interred bodies to accommodate the stream of fresh corpses, as described by Thomas Munns in 1842: I saw them bring up intestines in a bucket and put them out on the earth, and bones were thrown up, which were put in a barrow and wheeled away.

Improvements came quickly. From the 1840s, new drain systems and other ambitious projects started to remove waste and clean up water supplies. Scavengers removed filth from the streets. New laws imposed regulations on construction of dwellings to combat the growth of slums. Some towns built public conveniences; by 1875, Glasgow had 198 urinals.

Notably, 80 to 90 per cent of the population did not reside in slums, and many working-class families, especially in the later Victorian period, did not live in overcrowded conditions. And what seriously needs reassessing is the assumption of dirt. By contemporary standards, slum-dwellers were not all very dirty or, at least, they didnt choose to be. Evidence lurks in depictions of slum life. Gustave Dors famous etching (on page 50) shows lines of washing hanging in tenement backyards. Some even served as laundries for the well-to-do those most offended by the slums dirty existence.

4 When crime paid

Newspapers made a mint out of exaggerating the threat posed by the criminal class. Though the Victorian age has come to be remembered as criminal and violent, most of the best-known vicious anti-heroes of the 19th century are fictional or semi-fictional for example, Fagin and Jack the Ripper.

Our perceptions have been largely driven by the Victorians own fears and claims of a large, hardened, uncivilised and largely irretrievable criminal class in towns and cities. The famous early Victorian social investigators Henry Mayhew and John Binny boasted that they had managed to assemble 150 of these creatures in a room, the effect a spectacle of squalor, rags and wretchedness Some were young men, and some were children [many] had the deep-sunk and half-averted eye so characteristic of natural dishonesty and cunning The hair of most of the lads was cut very close to the head, showing their recent liberation from prison.

The popularisation of phrenology (a pseudoscience primarily focused on measurements of the human skull) gave the idea of the criminal class a scientific authority. The arrival of crime statistics in 1857 brought accurate estimates of the dimensions of this class (20,000 members in London alone, according to journalist James Greenwood in 1869), and the introduction of criminal registers with photographs enabled the monitoring of every individual.

Historians have worked hard to explode this myth: there were probably no more than about 4,000 truly habitual criminals, and most theft and violence was opportunistic and carried out by poor, young men.

Contemporary fears about crime and violence were further inflamed by an expanding and increasingly pictorial newspaper press. Crime news was readily available and sold well. Detailed coverage of a particularly gruesome murder could increase circulation several fold; the proprietors of several national and London newspapers made small fortunes from coverage of the Jack the Ripper murders.

With its thirst for crime, the media also manufactured moral panics by compiling reports over several weeks to suggest that a crime wave had hit a local area. The most famous of these was the London garrotting panic of the early 1860s, sparked when several London newspapers published a wave of reports on violent street robberies. In fact, according to the criminal statistics, there was no significant increase in robberies. However, popular fears forced the government to take action, increasing penalties for offenders and granting police new powers of surveillance over known criminals.

Victorian statistics also tell us that crime or at least serious theft and violence was in decline through the second half of the 19th century. They are supported by other evidence, notably the emergence of a disciplined, efficient police force accepted if not always liked by almost every level of society. At the same time, society was becoming less violent. Male-on-male violence almost certainly declined as displays of aggression were increasingly regarded as unacceptable. But that didnt stop many Victorians believing they were living through a crime-ravaged age. As one committed working-class newspaper reader declared to Henry Mayhew: I read Lloyds Weekly Newspaper on a Sunday, and what murders and robberies there is now!

Perceptions are important in assessments of quality of life, but so too is lived experience. Victorians were predominantly spectators rather than victims of crime. And spectating when violence was presented in neatly packaged, entertaining forms could be an enjoyable pastime.

5 A nation rises from its sickbed

The Victorians, especially poor ones, were at high risk of catching some nasty diseases. Most of the common killers measles, scarlet fever, smallpox and typhus had blighted Britain for centuries. Yet overcrowded and unsanitary conditions created by rapid urbanisation did assist the spread of these infectious diseases, as well as various illnesses of the digestive system such as diarrhoea and gastroenteritis.

Whats more, life expectancy, which had previously shown long-term improvement, took a tumble in the second quarter of the 19th century. By the start of Queen Victorias reign, it had fallen to around 2527 years in the industrial towns of Manchester, Liverpool and Glasgow. As the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure calculates, life expectancy in urban slums of the 1830s and 1840s was the lowest it had been since the Black Death.

The primary reason was the high rate of child mortality. Around one-third of children, and more than half in some poor neighbourhoods, died before they reached the age of five. High child mortality was a factor driving increased numbers of offspring. However, as the letters, diaries and memoirs of men and women from all levels of society show, having more children never compensated emotionally for those who were lost.

As grim as these mortality statistics appear, overall the Victorian period was an era of improvement in terms of health. Life expectancy increased from around 1870 onwards, largely due to the fact that the Victorians became better at fighting diseases. Sanitary reform helped, because stagnant dirty water was flushed away. Doctors and scientists began to develop a better understanding of the causes of diseases.

Though cholera killed more than 50,000 people in Britain during the 184849 epidemic, the death toll fell to around 14,000 in the last epidemic of 1866, after John Snow successfully demonstrated that the disease was transmitted via contaminated water. Infectious diseases were responsible for around 40 per cent of urban deaths in 1840, but this figure dropped to about 20 per cent by 1900. The moment at which the prevalence of degenerative disease overtook that of infectious disease came during the Victorian era.

Alongside better hygiene, improved nutrition also helped combat disease, which might sound unlikely in light of a commonly told story of the period the numbers of short men with bad teeth and poor eyesight, enlisting for service in the Boer Wars at the end of the century, who triggered a government inquiry.

Then there were tales of food adulteration the use of chalk or alum in white bread, plaster of Paris in boiled sweets, horsemeat in sausages encouraged by an unregulated industry under pressure to sell ready-made food at cheap prices. However, from 1860, new legislation on food standards combated the worst abuses. And anyway, having developed a taste for many rogue products, the working classes were largely indifferent about most low-level adulteration.

Recent research suggests that Britons of the mid-Victorian period enjoyed a diet rich in fruit, whole grains, oily fish and vegetables superior to ours today, in fact. Nutritional problems came in the form of tinned foods and cheap sugar imported during the late 19th century detrimental in the long term but, in the short term, sources of delight rather than misery.

Rosalind Crone is a senior lecturer in history at the Open University, specialising in the society and culture of 19th-century Britain, particularly criminal justice and popular culture.

This article was first published in the Christmas 2015 issue of BBC History Magazine

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Was Victorian Life Really So Bad? 5 Reasons Why The Victorians Were Happy - BBC History Magazine

Death, Taxes and Frank Gore – The New York Times

Posted: October 16, 2019 at 4:47 pm

Despite the chips, his diet now revolves around lean meat, and he allows himself cheat meals on Sundays. He started boxing midway through his career to build endurance and hand-eye coordination without the heavy impact that regular cardio had on his legs.

That boxing is a respite should say everything about Gores capacity for pain. In addition to his two A.C.L. tears in college, he has had double shoulder surgery (2005), three ankle injuries (2007, 08, 09), a hip fracture (2010), a concussion (2014), another shoulder injury (2017) and a sprained foot (2018). Despite it all, he has been on the injured reserve list only twice in his career.

He has managed to miss only two games since 2011, but there are days now when Gore is too sore or beat up to practice, such as the week after the Patriots game, when he needed an extra day off to recover. There are other days when hell spend six hours at the training facility, working out for two and spending the other four rehabbing and trying to stay ahead of injuries.

Though he still savors outworking younger running backs, Gore has long been a mentor, too. In 2007, when his mother, Lizzie, died during the football season, Robinson noticed a big difference in his demeanor.

It seemed to stop being about him and being more about the team, Robinson said. I know it was a loss in his life personally, but I think it was a gain in his life at the same time because he gained such a level of calmness, such a level of perspective. He became a better teammate.

Gore has taken Singletary, the Bills third-round pick in the 2019 draft, under his wing. Its important to him, Gore said, to be able to look back once he is finished playing and know he was able to pass down his knowledge to the next generation.

Even when hes not in, hes still back there saying, This play is going to go here or This play is going to go here, said Ken Dorsey, the Bills quarterbacks coach, who has known Gore since 2001, when Gore was a freshman at Miami and Dorsey was the teams starting quarterback.

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Death, Taxes and Frank Gore - The New York Times


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